Cell cycle & mitosis; Meiosis (Chapter 11, 12) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell cycle & mitosis; Meiosis (Chapter 11, 12) Deck (45):
1

_____________ are nuclear units of genetic info & associated proteins

 

Chromosomes

2

Describe sister chromatids

  • same as parent chromosome `paired threads`
  • held together until mitosis separates them
  • genetic info

3

What are the essential components of the cell theory

living things are made from cells

cells come from other cells

4

What happens in the interphase portion of mitotic cell division

 

non dividing cell phase

G1 Phase - makes organelles

S Phase - replication of DNA

G2 Phase - more organelles

5

define somatic cells

 

non-gamete cells

copying and dividing

genetic clone

6

What are the five phases of the M Phase

 

Prophase

Prometaphases

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

7

What is the function of mitosis

 

Growth

wound repair

sexual reporduction

8

______________ is a copy of one strand of DNA

Chromatid

9

___________________ is the centre point between the sister chrmatids that bind them together

 

centromere

10

________ are the proteins at the centromere where microtubules bind

 

Kinetochore

11

____________ the protein ring that stabilizes the loops of the Chromosomes, condeses it

Condensins

12

What are the two purposes of the microtubules during mitosis

 

  1. to adhere to the centromere
  2. for pulling the diving cells to opposite poles

13

What protein is responsible for binding down the loops of the sister chromatids together at the centramere

 

cohesins

14

______________ is the structure on sister chromatids where mirotubles attach

 

kinetochore

15

What is the root for the word meiosis

Lessening act

Becauuse the sperm and egg cells have only 2 chromosomes, whereas all other cells have 4

16

What is the difference between an allele and a gene

 

allele is different versons of the same gene -> traits

homologs carry same genes but different traits

17

What are the four phases of the cell cycle

 

M-Phase - Cell Division

G1 - Organelles replicated

S Phase: synthesis phase - replication of DNA

G2 - more organelles replicated

18

Meiosis leads to ________ cells

 

Somatic or gamete

 

gamete

19

20

What are the 3 key events mitosis is responsible for

 

  • growth
  • wound repair
  • reporductive (asexual)

21

22

What is the root of the word cytokenesis

cell movement

23

Put the 5 phases of mitosis in order

  1. metaphase
  2. telophase
  3. prometaphase
  4. prophase
  5. anaphase

 

Prophase

Prometaphase

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

24

______________ are non gamete cells, coying and dividing  - a genetic clone

 

somatic cells

25

When during M phase are the chromosomes the smallest

 

Prophase

26

Describe what is going on to the chromosome during prophase

 

``before Phase``

chromosome compaction

spindle app, working on the structure

cytoplasmic creation

27

Describe what is going on during prometaphase

 

``before middle phase``

nuclear envelope dissapears

spindle enters nuclear area

microtubules attach to chromosomes on the kinetechares of each chromosome

some of the microtubules overlap - for cell division mobility

28

What is happening with the chromosomes during metaphase

 

the are being lined up at the midpoint

the formation of the spindle apparatus is complete

29

What is happening during the anaphase

 

``against phase``

sister chromatids separate and move to opp poles

spindle app pulls chromosomes and pushes poles of cells away

30

What is happening during telophase

 

``end phase``

nuclear envelop re forms

spindle app disintigrates

 

31

describe how the cleavage furrow is happening

 

via motor proteins actin and myosin

part of cytokinesis

32

Microtubules - how do they work on the chromosomes and cell division

 

microtubles attach to the kinetochore on it`s positive side, which is also where it lengthens and sortens to pull the chromosome in place

microtubules also overlap and their function is cytokinesis

33

what are the two distince proteins in Mitosis Promoting Factor MPF

 

Kinase

cyclins

34

What is the purpose of MPF

 

induces mitosis

35

Which of the proteins in MPF fluctuate in concentration of the cell cycle

 

cyclin bound to cyclin dependend kinase CdK

36

Which phase are cyclines at theeir highest concentration

 

m phase

37

What does the kinase do

 

enzyme cleives Pi from ATP on target protein therefore a regulatory element

38

Whoe does the MPF work with the cyclins and >CdK (cyclin dependant Kinase)

 

On the CdK the are 2 phophoralated sites which is the MPF in it`s inactive state

Late in G2 phase enzyme cleaive on Pi and preomes active -> M phase

39

How is MPF deactivated

 

during anaphase it starts to degregate

cyclin gets marked for destruction by ubiqutin and the proteasome

therefore concentration degredated and concentrations reduce

40

Where in the cell cycle are the checkpoints

 

G1 - Is it big enough, enough nutrients, social signals for growth, is the damage to the DNA,

G2 - MPF key in signaling, if error in DNA the dephoporalization fo MPF is blocked

Metaphase checkpoint - pass go if chromosomes attached to spindle app correctly

41

what is the definition of apoptosis

 

cell self destruction

42

During the G1 checkpoint if _________ defective DNA remains unrepaired, this protein is also called

 

p53

tumor supressors

43

Cancer arrises from faulty checkpoints, there are two major types.  What are they

 

Make proteins for cell growht active when they shouldn`t

defects prevent tumor suppressor cells from shutting down during the cycle

44

what does platelet derived growth factor PDGF do

 

it is a growth factor

binds to tyrosine kinases on cell mb

45