cell cycle histo lec Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in cell cycle histo lec Deck (34):
1

CELL TYPES based on function

somatic
reproductive

2

CELL TYPES based on function
- from the body of organisms
- maintain life processes

Somatic cell

3

CELL TYPES based on function
- production of offspring
- animals : gametes
(eggs & sperm)

Reproductive cell

4

CELL TYPES based on chromosome number

2N - diploid (- specific for each organism )
N - haploid

5

Cell death purposes (2)

to replace with new cells
and to maintain cell number

6

 cells have just entered a phase of cellular growth
-longest and most variable phase
-active RNA and protein synthesis

G1 -

7

synthesis of new DNA/chromosome duplication
-beginning of centrosome duplication

S-

8

cells have double complement of cellular DNA; resting prior to cell division

G2 –

9


- involved in the chromosome movement

Centriole

10

- Membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

Nuclear Membrane

11

parts of chromosome

centromere
chromatid kinetochore

12

- attachment for microtubule of mitotic spindle

Kinetochore

13

Chromatin thickens into chromosomes

Centriole pairs move to opposite ends of the cell

Spindle fibers begin to form

Nuclear membrane &
nucleoli disintegrates

prophase

14

Chromosomes align along the metaphase plate

Chromosomes attached to the spindle fiber through kinetochores

Metaphase

15

Paired chromosomes separate and move to opposite sides of the cell

Separation of centromeres

Separated chromosomes are called daughter chromosomes

Anaphase

16

Chromatids arrive at opposite poles of cell

Spindle fibers disintegrate

Nuclear membrane reforms

Nucleoli reappear
Contractile ring (eventually will be cleavage furrow) develops

Telophase

17

Cytoplasm divides

Produces two daughter cells, each with one nucleus
2n-diploid

cytoplasm

18

Field of study in genetics which analyzes the number and structure of human and animal chromosomes.

cytogenetics

19

test to examine chromosomes in a sample of cells, which can help identify genetic problems as the cause of a disorder or disease

karyotyping

20

Chromosomal Diseases

Down syndrome
Turner syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome
Cri-du-chat syndrome

21

a genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.
- occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21
- extra chromosome causes problems with the way the body and brain develop.

Down syndrome

22

Symptoms of Down syndrome

Widely- recognized appearance
Clinodactyly
Floppy
Smaller and abnormally shaped head

23

- a rare genetic condition in which a female does not have the usual pair of two X chromosomes.
- The condition only occurs in females.
- female patient has only one X chromosome. (Others may have two X chromosomes, but one of them is incomplete.)

turner syndrome

24

symptom of turner syndrome in young infants

swollen hands and feet

25

symptom of turner syndrome in older females (7)

drooping eyelids
dry eyes
absence or no development during puberty
broad and flat chest
infertility
no periods
short height

26


a genetic disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome for a total of 47 chromosomes rather than the 46
have at least two X chromosomes and at least one Y chromosome.
genetic material in the sperm splits unevenly
Not hereditary

klinefelter

27

klinefelter is also known as also known as 

47,XXY 

28

chromosomal disease that does not show symptoms

klinefelter

29

effects of klinefelter (2)

hypogonadism
sterility

30

other names for cri du chat syndrome

chromosome 5p deletion syndrome, 
5p− syndrome 
 Lejeune’s syndrome

31

rare genetic disorder due to a missing part (deletion) of chromosome 5

cri du chat

32

characteristic cat-like cry of affected children (meowing kitten) problems with the larynx and nervous system,

cri du chat

33

cri du chat is more common in

females

34

symptoms of cri du chat

feeding problems because of difficulty swallowing and sucking;
low birth weight and poor growth;
severe cognitive, speech, and motor delays
behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, and repetitive movements;
unusual facial features which may change over time;
small head and jaw;
wide eyes;

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