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Flashcards in Cell Division Test Deck (80):
1

What is an example of apopptosis

When fetuses have webbed fingers and toes, that tissue goes through this

2

Entire genetic material of an organism

Genome

3

Proteins around which DNA is wrapped

Histones

4

Threadlike structure of DNA in nucleus that is not dividing

Chromatin

5

Discrete molecule of DNA that has coiled and condensed and is visible

Chromosome

6

The chromosome is in the

Nucleus

7

Humans have __ chromosomes

46, 23 pairs

8

One of two identical copies of a duplicated chromosome

Chromatid

9

Part of a chromosome that attaches sister chromatids together

Centromere

10

Total number of chromosomes in an organism cell __ abbreviated __

Diploid number
2n
Humans 46

11

One half of diploid number __, abbreviated __

Haploid number
n
Humans 23

12

Picture showing all the chromosomes of the cell

Karyotype

13

Sex cells, contain haploid number of chromosomes (23)

Gametes

14

The gametes of women cells are __
The gametes of men cells are __

Eggs
Sperm

15

Cells that produce gametes

Germ cells

16

All cells of the body except germ cells

Somatic cells

17

Two basic types of cells in the body

Germ cells and somatic cells

18

The process of a nuclear cell division that produces two genetically identical diploid daughter cells

Mitosis

19

Function of mitosis

Growth and repair

20

Process that occurs in gametes that usually produces four genetically different haploid daughter cells

Meiosis

21

Series of reactions that the cell undergoes when it is dividing

Cell cycle

22

Stages of cell cycle

Interphase, mitosis (m stage), cytokinesis

23

Phase between my mitotic divisions

Interphase

24

Three stages of interphase

G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase

25

G stands for __, and S stands for __

Growth
Synthesis

26

What happens in the S-phase

It is where DNA replication occurs

27

Stages of mitosis

Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

28

Three things that happen in prophase

1. DNA coils, condenses, and becomes visible
2. Nucleolus disappears
3. Spindle is formed

29

Moves the chromosomes when it is time

Spindle

30

What happens in prometaphase

Nuclear envelope disappears

31

What happens in metaphase

Chromosomes line up on metaphase plate, which is on the equator of the cell

32

What happens during anaphase

Sister chromatids are pulled apart at centromere, toward opposite poles

33

Three things that happened during telophase

1. Chromatids reach opposite poles
2. Nuclear membrane reforms
3. Nucleolus reappears

34

Cytokinesis is part of the __, but not __

M phase
Mitosis

35

What happens during cytokinesis

1. The two cells separate
2. Cleavage Furrough forms which helps it separate

36

Cleavage Furrough is only in __ cells, in plant cells it is __

Animal
Cell plate

37

At the end of cytokinesis you have __

Two genetically identical cells

38

In mitosis you start out with __ and end up with __

One diploid daughter cell
Two genetically identical diploid daughter cells

39

Types of cell cycle regulations

Check points, Go phase, telomeres

40

Check over what has happened, make sure everything is right

Check points

41

Checkpoints are controlled by __, __ and __ it

Growth factor, which stimulate the cell cycle and suppress it

42

Four examples of checkpoints

G1 checkpoint, S checkpoint, G2 checkpoint, metaphase checkpoint

43

In G1 checkpoint DNA is __

Screened for damage

44

If the G1 checkpoint cannot fix The damage, __ will trigger __

p53 (protein)
Apoptosis

45

S check points do what

Ensure accurate DNA replication

46

G2 checkpoint is after __ and does what?

DNA replication
1. Checks for damaged DNA, two complete sets
2. Tries to fix problems or calls in p53

47

What two things does metaphase checkpoint do

1. Ensures alignment of chromosomes
2. Make sure spindle is attached correctly

48

The stage in which the cell cycle is stopped (when cells are done dividing for the most part)

Go

49

Specific sequences of DNA found it both ends of chromosomes

Telomeres

50

Each time a cell divides, telomeres get __

Shorter

51

Once the telomeres get so short that they are eventually gone, the cell __

Quits dividing

52

Each cell undergoes about __ until the telomeres are gone

50 divisions

53

Enzyme that adds telomeres back onto the chromosome

Telomerase

54

Telomerase is present in cells but need to __

Divide your whole life
Ex: skin cells, blood cells and cancer cells

55

Growth or abnormal mass of tissue

Tumor

56

Slow-growing tumor and it will not spread

Benign

57

__ suffix means it is benign

oma

58

Fast growing and likely to spread

Malignant

59

__ suffix means it's malignant

sarcoma and carcinoma

60

Medical term for cancer

Neoplasia
(Neo means new, plasia means growth)

61

Means the cancer has already spread

Metastasis

62

How are cancer cells different from regular cells

1. They look different- rounder and lose normal features
2. They're immortal
3. They make their own signals about when to divide
4. Black contact inhibition (they'll pile up, being contacted with other cells doesn't stop them from dividing)
5. When damaged, they may not die
6. They will build their own blood supply (angiogenesis)

63

Production of blood supply (tumors can do this on their own)

Angiogenesis

64

Once a cell is contacted on all cells, they stop dividing

Contact inhibition

65

Programmed cell death, supposed to happen

Apoptosis

66

Causes of cancer

Oncogenes and damaged tumor suppressed genes

67

Abnormal variants of genes that control cell division

Oncogenes

68

Oncogenes we genes that __

Cause cancer

69

Example of oncogenes

Cervical, bladder, and liver cancer

70

Only __ is needed to be expressed

One oncogene

71

Promote normal cell death or prevent cell division

Tumor suppressor genes

72

If tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or damaged the you can have __

Cancer

73

Unlike oncogenes, __ must be inactivated or damaged to cause __

Both genes
Cancer

74

Treatments of cancer

Chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and there are new techniques

75

Medication that targets rapidly dividing cells

Chemotherapy

76

Side effects of chemo are __ because __

Hair loss, nausea, low white blood cell count because skin cells, intestinal cells, and blood cells divide rapidly

77

Examples of radiation

X-rays and radioactive isotopes

78

Example of radioactive isotope

Radioactive iodine, which destroys

79

Newer treatments include __

Viruses that attack cancer

80

Two major functions of apoptosis

1. Eliminate access cells to carve out functional structure
2. Eliminate cells that might harm the organism