Flashcards in Cell Injury Deck (17):
What are the normal processes which maintain the steady cellular state?
-Cell injury occurs when these processes are interupted
1) Preservation of genetic integrity
2) Normal enzyme content
3) intact membranes and transmembrane proteins
4) Adequate supply of substrates and oxygen
what happens when a normal cell undergoes stress?
-If the cell is unable to adapt to stress then injury occurs
What happens with when a cell undergoes irreversible injury?
How does a cell adapt?
1) increased cellular activity :
2) Change in cell morphology
3) Decreased cellular activity
What is the cause of cell injury?
1) Oxygen availability
3) chemical agents
4) infectious organisms
8) lack of nutrients
What happens in the reduction of oxygen?
1) Hypoxia and anoxia
(reduction of oxygen often caused by ischaemia)
What are the effects of Physical trauma to a cell?
1) mechanical trauma
-disrupts cell structure
-causes thrombosis >>>Ischaemia
2)Extrenes of temperature
-Heat denaaturation of proteins
What are chemical agents can cause cell injury?
How do infectious organisms causes cell injury?
1) Bacterial Toxin
2) Hijacking of cell by virus leading to cell lysis
3)damage from inflammation
How does irradiation cause cell ingury?
-generation of free radicals damages cell molecules
how to free radicals cause cell injury?
-free radicals are highly reactive molecules.
-It interacts with the membrane to produce more free radicals
-damages proteins and nucleic acids >>>apoptosis
What is necrosis?
-Necrosis is cell death that occurs as a result of lethal cell injury.
-causes inflammatory reaction
What are the morphological types of necrosis?
-Gangrene (wet and dry)
What is coagulative necrosis?
- dead tissue become firm and swollen.
What is colliquative necrosis?
Necrotic neural tissue can become liquified. The site is marked by a cyst
What is caseous necrosis?
-occurs in TB
-cheese like as cell detail destroyed
-surrounded by granulomatous inflammation