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EMS - Mechanisms Of Disease > Cell Injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Injury Deck (17):
1

What are the normal processes which maintain the steady cellular state?

-Cell injury occurs when these processes are interupted

1) Preservation of genetic integrity
2) Normal enzyme content
3) intact membranes and transmembrane proteins
4) Adequate supply of substrates and oxygen

2

what happens when a normal cell undergoes stress?

-Adaptation
-If the cell is unable to adapt to stress then injury occurs

3

What happens with when a cell undergoes irreversible injury?

CELL DEATH:
1) Necrosis
2) Apoptosis

4

How does a cell adapt?

1) increased cellular activity :
-Hyperplasia
-Hypertrophy

2) Change in cell morphology
-Metaplasia

3) Decreased cellular activity
-Atrophy

5

What is the cause of cell injury?

1) Oxygen availability
2) Trauma
3) chemical agents
4) infectious organisms
5) irradiation
6) Genetic
7) ageing
8) lack of nutrients

6

What happens in the reduction of oxygen?

1) Hypoxia and anoxia
(reduction of oxygen often caused by ischaemia)

7

What are the effects of Physical trauma to a cell?

1) mechanical trauma
-disrupts cell structure
-causes thrombosis >>>Ischaemia

2)Extrenes of temperature
-Heat denaaturation of proteins
-Ice crystals

8

What are chemical agents can cause cell injury?

-alcohol
-tobacco smoke

9

How do infectious organisms causes cell injury?

1) Bacterial Toxin
-endo/exotoxins

2) Hijacking of cell by virus leading to cell lysis

3)damage from inflammation

10

How does irradiation cause cell ingury?

-generation of free radicals damages cell molecules

11

how to free radicals cause cell injury?

-free radicals are highly reactive molecules.
-It interacts with the membrane to produce more free radicals
-damages proteins and nucleic acids >>>apoptosis

12

What is necrosis?

-Necrosis is cell death that occurs as a result of lethal cell injury.
-causes inflammatory reaction
-passive process

13

What are the morphological types of necrosis?

-coagulative
-caseous (TB)
-Colliquative (brain)
-Gangrene (wet and dry)
-Fat/fibrinoid

14

What is coagulative necrosis?

- dead tissue become firm and swollen.

15

What is colliquative necrosis?

Necrotic neural tissue can become liquified. The site is marked by a cyst

16

What is caseous necrosis?

-occurs in TB
-cheese like as cell detail destroyed
-surrounded by granulomatous inflammation
-lacks structure

17

What is apoptosis?

Apoptosis is programmed cell death.
-it is an active process and requires energy