Flashcards in Cell Physiology Deck (91)
Liver and kidney cells are what type of cells?
Cell classification of neurons, skeletal, and cardiac muscles
Protoplasm is mainly composed of?
Water - 70 to 80%
Contains DNA, histones and chromosomes; has nucleolus
Involve in detoxication, lipid synthesis, lipid - soluble substances to water soluble substances
Agranular endoplasmic reticulum - Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
For protein synthesis bound for cell membrane, lysosomes, outside of the cell
Protein synthesis for the cytoplasm and mitochondria
Packing, molecular tagging and synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate
Contains proenzymes, neurotransmitters and replenishes cell membrane components
For regression of tissues and autolysis, suicide bags of the cell, destroys FBs
Degrades membrane associated proteins, not membrane bound
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Contains oxidases, catalases for detoxyfication
Process that only happen inside the mitochondria?
Kreb's Cycle - TCA
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids
Process that both occur in the cytoplasm and mitochondria
Earliest manifestation of Vit. A deficiency
Available form of vitamin A in the eyes?
Available vitamin A used for the skin
Retinoic acid - skin while Retinol is for the gonads
Vitamin D deficiency in children
Vitamin D deficiency in adults
Vitamin K is an important component for what clotting factor?
10, 9, 7, 2, and protein S and protein C
Pellagra is due deficiency of what vitamins?
Vitamin B3 - Niacin
Vitamin B1 deficiency that is at risk for heart failure
Four D's of Pellagra
Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis and Death
Vitamin B5 is also known as?
Deficiency results to cheilosis and angular stomatitis
Vitamin B2: Riboflavin - source milk
Peripheral neuropathy esp. for patients taking Isoniazid has deficiency with?
Results to megaloblastic anemia with neural tube defects
Site of transcription and processing of rRNA
Organelle that contains mitochondrial DNA that is maternally derived and does not follow the genetic code
RER and SER are abundant in which organ?
Prokaryotic ribosomal subunits?
30s and 50s = 70s
Eukaryotic ribosomal unit
40s and 60s = 80s
Specialized SER in the skeletal muscles
Specialized RER in the neuron
Only substance modified in the RER and not the Golgi apparatus
Collagen ( unit of Glycine XY: hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine)
Vitamin used for oxidation, deficiency results to scurvy
Added to lysosome-bound proteins by Golgi apparatus for molecular tagging
Mannose - 6 Phosphate: proteins then go to the lysosomes
If Peroxisome is from SER then lysosome come from which organelle?
Wear and tear pigment that accumulates in the lysosomes?
Cell filament: microvilli, locomotion of macrophages, muscles, zonula adherens, and zonula occludens
Cell filament: keratin, neurofilaments, desmosomes and hemidesmosomes
Cell filament: from tubulin dimer, flagella, cilia, mitotic spindle and intracellular vesicles
Motor protein causing transport of substances from center of the cell to the periphery
Syndrome : situs inversus, infertility and bronchiectasis
Kartagener's syndrome - defective primary cilia explains the situs inversus
Cell locomotion: WBCs, fibroblasts, germinal cells of the skin, fertilized embryo as response to chemotactic substance
Motor protein causing transport of substances from periphery of the cell to the center
Cell locomotion: longer and moves in quasi-sinusoidal waves
Anterograde transport uses what protein?
Cell locomotion: whip like on in respiratory airways and fallopian tubes
Junctional complexes: disk shaped, for firm intercellular adhesions, (tight)
Macula adherens (desmosomes) - epithelium, "staple the cells"
Junctional complexes: ring shaped, increases surface area for contact
Zonula adherens (fascia adherens) - found in the intercalated disk of cardiac muscles
Junctional complexes: reticular pattern-divides cell into apical and basolateral side
Zonula occludens ( tight junctions) - found in the LEAKY (PCT, jejunum) and TIGHT (CD, terminal colon, BBB)
Junctional complexes: for intercellular communication
Gap junctions - in cardiac and unitary smooth muscles
Functional unit of Gap junction
Refer to movement of substance through apical and basolateral side?
Refer to movement of cells through tight junctions
Act as guardian of the cell, made up of lipid bilayer ( fluid mosaic model) and divides the body into ECF and ICF compartments
Cell membrane is mainly composed of what?
Component of the cell membrane that mainly determines membrane fluidity and permeability to water soluble structure
Cholesterol - 13%
Disease involved a mutation in a gene for chromosome 7 that encodes for ABC transporter called CFTR.
Cystic fibrosis - most common acquired recessive trait among Caucasians. Sweat chloride test is the diagnostic procedure
Refers to cell drinking, for proteins, requires ATP and extracellular calcium
Refers to cell eating, for larger substances, usually WBCs and macrophages, usually receptor-mediated
Exocytosis - secretion of hormones and NT's from intracellular vesicles is mediated by what protein?
TBW comprises how many percent of body weight?
60% - 75% in newborn
Percent composition of ICF and ECF in the body weight?
ICF:40% and ECF:20% of the body weight
Refers to the internal environment/ mileu interiur
Predominant cation and anion of the ECF and ICF
ECF: Na+, Cl-
ICF: K+, PO4-
Principle that states: each compartment, total number of cations should be equal to total number of anions
Principle of Macroscopic Electroneutrality
Refers to osmoles per kilogram of water, independent of temperature
Osmoles per liter of water, varies with temperature
Three main solutes used for estimation of plasma osmolarity
Sodium, glucose and urea
Refers to the movement of water from area of low concentration to high concentration across semi-permeable membrane
Which of the two is and example of PERMEANT solute? IMPERMEANT solute?
Urea(ineffective osmole) and Glucose (effective osmole)
Refers to weight of the volume of a solution divided by weight of equal volume of distilled water
Number between zero and one that describes the ease with which a solute permeates a membrane
Reflection coefficient/ osmotic coefficient
An RC of zero means complete solute penetration. Example would be?
Type of transport: carrier mediated, active, uses sodium gradient
Secondary active transport (cotransport&counter transport)
Type of transport: not carrier mediated and passive
Simple diffusion eg. Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Type of transport: carrier mediated, passive
Type of transport: carrier mediated, active, uses ATP
Primary active transport
Liters of blood in the system
Amount of oxygen in the lungs
Normal GFR value?
Normal cardiac output at rest?
Retrograde transport use what protein?
Cells that are continuously reproducing - eg. Skin cells
Syndrome among alcoholics deficient of Vit. B1
Powerhouse of the cell
Charged of the histones?