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Flashcards in Cell Physiology Deck (91)
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Liver and kidney cells are what type of cells?

Quiescent/Stable cells

1

Cell classification of neurons, skeletal, and cardiac muscles

Permanent cells

2

Protoplasm is mainly composed of?

Water - 70 to 80%

3

Contains DNA, histones and chromosomes; has nucleolus

Nucleus

4

Involve in detoxication, lipid synthesis, lipid - soluble substances to water soluble substances

Agranular endoplasmic reticulum - Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

5

For protein synthesis bound for cell membrane, lysosomes, outside of the cell

RER ribosomes

6

Protein synthesis for the cytoplasm and mitochondria

Free-Floating ribosomes

8

Packing, molecular tagging and synthesis of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate

Golgi apparatus

9

Contains proenzymes, neurotransmitters and replenishes cell membrane components

Secretory vesicles

10

For regression of tissues and autolysis, suicide bags of the cell, destroys FBs

Lysosomes

11

Degrades membrane associated proteins, not membrane bound

Proteosomes

12

Fat soluble vitamins

ADEK
Vitamins A, D, E, and K

14

Contains oxidases, catalases for detoxyfication

Peroxisomes

15

Process that only happen inside the mitochondria?

Kreb's Cycle - TCA
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids

16

Process that both occur in the cytoplasm and mitochondria

HUG
Heme synthesis
Urea cycle
Gluconeogenesis

17

Earliest manifestation of Vit. A deficiency

Nyctalopia

18

Available form of vitamin A in the eyes?

Retinal

19

Available vitamin A used for the skin

Retinoic acid - skin while Retinol is for the gonads

20

Vitamin D deficiency in children

Rickets

21

Vitamin D deficiency in adults

Osteomalacia

22

Vitamin K is an important component for what clotting factor?

10, 9, 7, 2, and protein S and protein C

23

Pellagra is due deficiency of what vitamins?

Vitamin B3 - Niacin

25

Vitamin B1 deficiency that is at risk for heart failure

Beri-beri

26

Four D's of Pellagra

Diarrhea, Dementia, Dermatitis and Death

27

Vitamin B5 is also known as?

Pathotenic acid

28

Deficiency results to cheilosis and angular stomatitis

Vitamin B2: Riboflavin - source milk

29

Peripheral neuropathy esp. for patients taking Isoniazid has deficiency with?

Vitamin B6:Pyridoxine

30

Results to megaloblastic anemia with neural tube defects

Folate deficiency

32

Site of transcription and processing of rRNA

Nucleolus

33

Organelle that contains mitochondrial DNA that is maternally derived and does not follow the genetic code

Mitochondria

34

RER and SER are abundant in which organ?

Liver

35

Prokaryotic ribosomal subunits?

30s and 50s = 70s

36

Eukaryotic ribosomal unit

40s and 60s = 80s

37

Specialized SER in the skeletal muscles

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

38

Specialized RER in the neuron

Nissl substances

39

Only substance modified in the RER and not the Golgi apparatus

Collagen ( unit of Glycine XY: hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine)

40

Vitamin used for oxidation, deficiency results to scurvy

Vitamin C

41

Added to lysosome-bound proteins by Golgi apparatus for molecular tagging

Mannose - 6 Phosphate: proteins then go to the lysosomes

42

If Peroxisome is from SER then lysosome come from which organelle?

Golgi Apparatus

43

Wear and tear pigment that accumulates in the lysosomes?

Lipofuscin

44

Cell filament: microvilli, locomotion of macrophages, muscles, zonula adherens, and zonula occludens

Actin/Microfilament

45

Cell filament: keratin, neurofilaments, desmosomes and hemidesmosomes

Intermediate filaments

46

Cell filament: from tubulin dimer, flagella, cilia, mitotic spindle and intracellular vesicles

Microtubules

47

Motor protein causing transport of substances from center of the cell to the periphery

Kinesin

48

Syndrome : situs inversus, infertility and bronchiectasis

Kartagener's syndrome - defective primary cilia explains the situs inversus

50

Cell locomotion: WBCs, fibroblasts, germinal cells of the skin, fertilized embryo as response to chemotactic substance

Amoeboid movement

51

Motor protein causing transport of substances from periphery of the cell to the center

Dynein

52

Cell locomotion: longer and moves in quasi-sinusoidal waves

Flagellar movement

54

Anterograde transport uses what protein?

Kinesin

55

Cell locomotion: whip like on in respiratory airways and fallopian tubes

Ciliary movement

56

Junctional complexes: disk shaped, for firm intercellular adhesions, (tight)

Macula adherens (desmosomes) - epithelium, "staple the cells"

57

Junctional complexes: ring shaped, increases surface area for contact

Zonula adherens (fascia adherens) - found in the intercalated disk of cardiac muscles

58

Junctional complexes: reticular pattern-divides cell into apical and basolateral side

Zonula occludens ( tight junctions) - found in the LEAKY (PCT, jejunum) and TIGHT (CD, terminal colon, BBB)

59

Junctional complexes: for intercellular communication

Gap junctions - in cardiac and unitary smooth muscles

60

Functional unit of Gap junction

Connexon

61

Refer to movement of substance through apical and basolateral side?

Transcellular transport

62

Refer to movement of cells through tight junctions

Paracellular transport

63

Act as guardian of the cell, made up of lipid bilayer ( fluid mosaic model) and divides the body into ECF and ICF compartments

Cell membrane

64

Cell membrane is mainly composed of what?

Proteins (55%)

65

Component of the cell membrane that mainly determines membrane fluidity and permeability to water soluble structure

Cholesterol - 13%

66

Disease involved a mutation in a gene for chromosome 7 that encodes for ABC transporter called CFTR.

Cystic fibrosis - most common acquired recessive trait among Caucasians. Sweat chloride test is the diagnostic procedure

67

Refers to cell drinking, for proteins, requires ATP and extracellular calcium

Pinocytosis

68

Refers to cell eating, for larger substances, usually WBCs and macrophages, usually receptor-mediated

Phagocytosis

69

Exocytosis - secretion of hormones and NT's from intracellular vesicles is mediated by what protein?

SNARE protein

70

TBW comprises how many percent of body weight?

60% - 75% in newborn

71

Percent composition of ICF and ECF in the body weight?

ICF:40% and ECF:20% of the body weight

72

Refers to the internal environment/ mileu interiur

ECF

73

Predominant cation and anion of the ECF and ICF

ECF: Na+, Cl-
ICF: K+, PO4-

74

Principle that states: each compartment, total number of cations should be equal to total number of anions

Principle of Macroscopic Electroneutrality

75

Refers to osmoles per kilogram of water, independent of temperature

Osmolality

76

Osmoles per liter of water, varies with temperature

Osmolarity

77

Three main solutes used for estimation of plasma osmolarity

Sodium, glucose and urea

78

Refers to the movement of water from area of low concentration to high concentration across semi-permeable membrane

Osmosis

79

Which of the two is and example of PERMEANT solute? IMPERMEANT solute?
Urea(ineffective osmole) and Glucose (effective osmole)

Impermeant: glucose
Permeant: urea

80

Refers to weight of the volume of a solution divided by weight of equal volume of distilled water

Specific gravity

81

Number between zero and one that describes the ease with which a solute permeates a membrane

Reflection coefficient/ osmotic coefficient

82

An RC of zero means complete solute penetration. Example would be?

Urea

83

Type of transport: carrier mediated, active, uses sodium gradient

Secondary active transport (cotransport&counter transport)

84

Type of transport: not carrier mediated and passive

Simple diffusion eg. Oxygen and carbon dioxide

85

Type of transport: carrier mediated, passive

Facilitated diffusion

86

Type of transport: carrier mediated, active, uses ATP

Primary active transport

87

Liters of blood in the system

Five liters

88

Amount of oxygen in the lungs

Six liters

89

Normal GFR value?

125ml/min

90

Normal cardiac output at rest?

5 liters

92

Retrograde transport use what protein?

Dynein

93

Cells that are continuously reproducing - eg. Skin cells

Labile cells

95

Syndrome among alcoholics deficient of Vit. B1

Wernicke-Korsacoff syndrome

99

Powerhouse of the cell

Mitochondria

103

Charged of the histones?

Positively charged

114

May result to megaloblastic anemia with neurologic deficits

Vitamin B12: Cobalamin deficiency