Flashcards in Cell Replication & Genetics Deck (58):
This is the type of cell replication used by eukaryotic cells.
The cell cycle.
The form of the cell cycle is used by somatic cells to create exact copies of the parent cell.
This form of the cell cycle is used for germ cells (reproductive cells) and creates daughter cells with half the genetic information of the parent cell.
This is DNA wound around proteins called histones.
This is a supercoil of DNA ready for cell replication.
This is a replicated chromosome.
Two identical chromosomes held together by a centromere.
The first phase of the cell cycle.
The phase during preparation where the cell grows to roughly double its size.
The phase during preparation when DNA is replicated.
Period during preparation when organelles are replicated.
Mitosis is the division of...
A human somatic cell has a diploid number of
After interphase a somatic cell has his number of chromosomes
The first phase in mitosis is
During prophase these form, to act has anchors to guide chromosomes
During prophase these form to act as ropes to facilitate the movement of chromosomes.
This type of spindle fiber keeps the centrioles at opposite ends of the cell.
This type of spindle fiber is attached to the chromosomes and controls their movement.
Chromosomes are formed during this phase and are paired with their "sister".
This is the phase where the nuclear membrane breaks down.
This is the phase where sister chromatids are moved to the center of the cell.
This is the phase where the centromeres break, separating the sister chromatids.
During this phase, the chromosomes relax, the spindle fibers retract, the nuclear membrane reappears, and the cell begins to pinch in.
This is literally the "separation of the cytoplasm". The process that creates daughter cells.
At the end of cytokinesis, somatic daughter cells have this many chromosomes.
Meiosis differs in that there are this many divisions of the nucleus.
At the end of cytokinesis, germ cells have this many chromosomes
This is a unique feature to meiosis, it occurs in metaphase I, it's when the homologous chromosomes pair up.
During metaphase I, this phenomenon of swapping genetic information can occur.
At the end of the meiosis cell cycle this type of cell is formed.
Gamete (egg and sperm)
This is the process of forming male gametes, it's begins at puberty and continues for the males lifetime.
This is the process of forming female gametes. It begins at puberty and ends at menopause.
This is the process of passing down genetic information from one generation to the next.
This is the study of inheritance
Any characteristic that varies among individuals in a population.
The segment of DNA that codes for a trait or protein.
The genetic composition of a trait
The physical appearance of a trait
A variation of a gene
An allele that has the ability to mask another allele. Given a capital letter.
An allele that can be hidden. Given a lowercase letter.
When the alleles for a trait are the same.
When the alleles for a trait are different
When plants self-pollinate creating "pure" organisms.
Cross-pollination of plants with opposite traits.
Offspring that are the product of parents with opposing traits
Plant species Mendel used
This principle stated that some alleles had the ability to cover up others. You see one phenotype, but the allele for the other is still there...just hidden.
Dominance and recessiveness
This principle states that alleles for a trait separate during the formation of gametes. Offspring get half from mom and half from dad.
This principle states that the selection of an allele is done at random, there is no pattern.
This is when the dominant allele doesn't fully cover the recessive and in the heterozygous you see an intermediate phenotype.
This is when the dominant and recessive alleles both show in the phenotype.
When 3 or more alleles control a trait
When more than one gene is involved in the expression of a trait
When sister chromatids fail to separate correctly or DNA is copied incorrectly
The manipulation of an organisms DNA