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Flashcards in Cell Replication & Genetics Deck (58):
1

This is the type of cell replication used by eukaryotic cells.

The cell cycle.

2

The form of the cell cycle is used by somatic cells to create exact copies of the parent cell.

Mitosis

3

This form of the cell cycle is used for germ cells (reproductive cells) and creates daughter cells with half the genetic information of the parent cell.

Meiosis

4

This is DNA wound around proteins called histones.

Chromatin

5

This is a supercoil of DNA ready for cell replication.

Chromosome

6

This is a replicated chromosome.

Chromatid

7

Two identical chromosomes held together by a centromere.

Sister chromatids

8

The first phase of the cell cycle.

Interphase

9

The phase during preparation where the cell grows to roughly double its size.

G1

10

The phase during preparation when DNA is replicated.

S

11

Period during preparation when organelles are replicated.

G2

12

Mitosis is the division of...

The nucleus

13

A human somatic cell has a diploid number of

46 chromosomes

14

After interphase a somatic cell has his number of chromosomes

92

15

The first phase in mitosis is

Prophase

16

During prophase these form, to act has anchors to guide chromosomes

Centrioles

17

During prophase these form to act as ropes to facilitate the movement of chromosomes.

Spindle fibers

18

This type of spindle fiber keeps the centrioles at opposite ends of the cell.

Polar fibers

19

This type of spindle fiber is attached to the chromosomes and controls their movement.

Kinetochore fibers

20

Chromosomes are formed during this phase and are paired with their "sister".

Prophase

21

This is the phase where the nuclear membrane breaks down.

Prophase

22

This is the phase where sister chromatids are moved to the center of the cell.

Metaphase

23

This is the phase where the centromeres break, separating the sister chromatids.

Anaphase

24

During this phase, the chromosomes relax, the spindle fibers retract, the nuclear membrane reappears, and the cell begins to pinch in.

Telophase

25

This is literally the "separation of the cytoplasm". The process that creates daughter cells.

Cytokinesis

26

At the end of cytokinesis, somatic daughter cells have this many chromosomes.

46

27

Meiosis differs in that there are this many divisions of the nucleus.

2

28

At the end of cytokinesis, germ cells have this many chromosomes

23 (haploid)

29

This is a unique feature to meiosis, it occurs in metaphase I, it's when the homologous chromosomes pair up.

Synapsis

30

During metaphase I, this phenomenon of swapping genetic information can occur.

Crossing over

31

At the end of the meiosis cell cycle this type of cell is formed.

Gamete (egg and sperm)

32

This is the process of forming male gametes, it's begins at puberty and continues for the males lifetime.

Spermatogenesis

33

This is the process of forming female gametes. It begins at puberty and ends at menopause.

Oogenesis

34

This is the process of passing down genetic information from one generation to the next.

Inheritance

35

This is the study of inheritance

Genetics

36

Any characteristic that varies among individuals in a population.

Trait

37

The segment of DNA that codes for a trait or protein.

Gene

38

The genetic composition of a trait

Genotype

39

The physical appearance of a trait

Phenotype

40

A variation of a gene

Allele

41

An allele that has the ability to mask another allele. Given a capital letter.

Dominant

42

An allele that can be hidden. Given a lowercase letter.

Recessive

43

When the alleles for a trait are the same.

Homozygous

44

When the alleles for a trait are different

Heterozygous

45

When plants self-pollinate creating "pure" organisms.

True-breeding

46

Cross-pollination of plants with opposite traits.

Cross breeding

47

Offspring that are the product of parents with opposing traits

Hybrid

48

Plant species Mendel used

Peas

49

This principle stated that some alleles had the ability to cover up others. You see one phenotype, but the allele for the other is still there...just hidden.

Dominance and recessiveness

50

This principle states that alleles for a trait separate during the formation of gametes. Offspring get half from mom and half from dad.

Segregation

51

This principle states that the selection of an allele is done at random, there is no pattern.

Independent assortment

52

This is when the dominant allele doesn't fully cover the recessive and in the heterozygous you see an intermediate phenotype.

Incomplete dominance

53

This is when the dominant and recessive alleles both show in the phenotype.

Co-dominance

54

When 3 or more alleles control a trait

Multiple alleles

55

When more than one gene is involved in the expression of a trait

Polygenetic

56

When sister chromatids fail to separate correctly or DNA is copied incorrectly

Genetic disorder

57

The manipulation of an organisms DNA

Genetic engineering

58

This is the type of cell replication used by bacteria and other prokaryotes.

Binary fission