Cell Replication and Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Replication and Evolution Deck (22):
1

What cells do not normally progress through the cell cycle?

Differentiated cells performing specialized functions, or dormant stages of organisms.

2

Define Mitosis

A division of the nucleus that involves an equational division of the chromosomes.

3

Before mitosis, the chromosomes are duplicated in what phase to make what?

S phase, sister Chromatids

4

What is an allele?

A specific version of a gene

5

What happens in prophase?

Chromatin is condensed into chromosomes, centrosomes use microtubules to attain correct shape for division.

6

DNA Sequences are

Continuous

7

Define methylation, is it heritable?

the modification of genes as a response to stiumuli, yes.

8

What 6 types of cell undergo the cell cycle?

Growing unicellular organisms, embryonic cells in young animals, stem cells in mature animals, cells in the meristem of plants, cells at fungal or algal growing points, cells that divide to heal in plants and animals.

9

What is density dependent inhibition of the cell? Which cells are not subject to this?

As it sounds, cancer.

10

What is a chromosome?

A structured collection of genes, proteins, and DNA.

11

What percentage of a chromosome is protein vs. DNA?

50/50

12

What is a genome?

All the genes of an organism?

13

After mitosis each daughter nucleus will be genetically __?

Identical

14

How is hereditary information passed on?

Via sexual reproduction.

15

How is hereditary information used by an organism?

Codes for every aspect of an organisms existence.

16

How is hereditary information organized?

DNA to Chromosomes

17

How does hereditary information change over time?

Epigenetics.

18

Why did Mendel succeed in his experiments?

Asked specific testable questions, constructed a model to explain results.

19

Define hybridization

To cross two parents who differ with regards to one or more traits.

20

What are some major features of the model Mendel constructed?

Homozygotes, heterozygotes, phenotype, genotype, alleles, dominance, regression.

21

Define monohybrid cross.

A manner of discovering new genes, two phenotypic variants of the gene must be present.

22

What is the ratio of dominant to recessive genes found in a monohybrid cross?

3:1 Dominant:Recessive