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Flashcards in Cell Structure Deck (60):
1

What do prokaryotes and eukaryotes both contain?

Organelles

2

What are the two types of organisms?

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes

3

What is the image recorded by an electron microscope called

Electron micrograph

4

What type of microscope would be used to show the detailed ultrastructure of a cell?

Electron microscope

5

Name three things visible with a light microscope in both animal and plant cells

If the cells have been stained you can see the dark coloured nucleus surrounded by lighter coloured cytoplasm
Tiny mitochondria and the black line of the cell membrane are visible
In plant cells the cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuole can be seen

6

Explain chloroplasts

They contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis

7

What is cell sap?

A weak solution of sugar and salts

8

What does the vacuole contain?

Cell sap

9

What is the cell wall made of?

Cellulose

10

What is mitochondria?

Where glucose and oxygen are used in respiration to provide a source of energy for the cell

11

What does the cell-surface membrane do?

Holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out of the cell

12

What does the nucleus contain?

Contains genetic material (DNA) that controls what the cell does

13

What is the function of the cytoplasm?

Contains enzymes that speed up biochemical reactions

14

What do prokaryotic cells have which allows them to move?

Flagellum

15

Where does the DNA go in prokaryotic cells?

Floats in the cytoplasm

16

What don't prokaryotic cells contain?

Nucleus
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts

17

What are the three extra organelles that only plant cells have

Rigid cell
Vacuole
Chloroplasts

18

What are the 4 organelles in both animal and plant cells?

Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Cell-surface membrane
Mitochondria

19

What are organelles

Parts of cells, each one has a specific function

20

What is an example of a prokaryotic cell?

Bacterial cells

21

What happens to the DNA molecules during cell division?

They coil up becoming shorter and thicker

22

What is the equation for aerobic respiration?

Glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + energy

23

What do cellulose molecules form when they lay side by side?

Microfibrils

24

What does the cell-surface membrane consist of?

A double layer of phospholipid molecules tightly packed together

25

Explain how substances pass through membranes through diffusion

Particles of liquids and gases move about constantly, which causes the particles to spread from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. Particles will diffuse as long as they're small enough to pass through the gaps between the phospholipid molecules. Water oxygen and carbon dioxide can do this.

26

Explain how substances pass through membranes in osmosis

Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

27

How do substances pass through the membrane through facilitated diffusion

Glucose and many other water soluble molecules are too big to diffuse through membranes, they must be helped by carrier proteins. Each substance has its own specific carrier protein, example- a molecule of glucose fits into the outside end of a glucose carrier protein. This causes the protein to change shape so the glucose can diffuse through.

28

How do mineral ions like sodium and potassium pass through the membrane?

Through facilitated diffusion, they had electrical charges on them so they need help by specific channel proteins

29

Explain how substances pass through the membrane through active transport

When a cell needs to move across the membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, it must provide energy, the substance fits into a specific carrier protein, molecules of ATP provide energy to change the shape of the protein, it can then pass through the membrane.

30

What is ATP?

It's used in cells to provide energy for muscle contraction, active transport and building large molecules

31

What is the only method to pass through membranes that requires energy?

Active transport

32

What are the four ways substances can pass through the membrane

Diffusion
Osmosis
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport

33

What is the description of cell-surface membrane

The membrane found on the surface of animal cells and just inside the cell wall of other cells. It's mainly made of lipids and protein.

34

What is the function of cell surface membrane

Regulates movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones.

35

What is the description of nucleus

Surrounded by a double membrane that contains pours. The nucleus contains chromosomes and one or more structure(s) called a nucleolus

36

What is the function of the nucleus

The nucleus controls the cells activities. DNA contains instructions to make proteins. The pores allow substances to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nucleolus makes ribosomes

37

What does the nucleolus make

Ribosomes

38

What do the pores in the nucleus do

Allow substances to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm

39

What's the description of the mitochondria

They have a double membrane - the inner one is folded to form structures called cristae. Inside the matrix which contains enzymes involved in respiration

40

What's the function of mitochondrion

The site of aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration produces ATP - a common energy source in the cell. They require a lot of energy.

41

What is the definition of chloroplasts

Found in plant cells and algal cells. Surrounded by a double membrane and also has membranes inside called thylakoids membrane. These membranes are stacked up to form grana which are linked together by lamellae

42

What is the function of chloroplasts?

The site where photosynthesis takes place. Some parts of photosynthesis happen in the grana, and others in the stroma

43

What are the membranes inside the chloroplast called?

Thylakoid membranes

44

What forms grana?

Membranes stacked up in some parts of the chloroplasts

45

What is the definition of Golgi apparatus

A group of fluid filled membrane flattened sacs, with vesicles on the edges

46

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus

Processes and packages new lipids and proteins - also makes lysosomes

47

What is the description of the Golgi vesicle

Small fluid filled sac in the cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane and produced by the Golgi apparatus

48

What is the function of the Golgi vesicle

Stores lipids and proteins and transports them out of the cell

49

What's the description of a lysosome

Organelle surrounded by a membrane - it's a type of Golgi vesicle

50

What is the function for lysosomes

Contains digestive enzymes called lysozymes. These are kept separate from the cytoplasm by surrounding the membrane, can be used to digest invading cells or break down parts of the cell.

51

What is the description of ribosomes

Floats free in the cytoplasm or attached to the Rough endoplasmic reticulum - not surrounded by a membrane

52

What is the function of ribosomes

Where proteins are made

53

What is the description of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

A system of membranes enclosing a fluid filled space. Surface is covered in ribosomes

54

What is the function for rough endoplasmic reticulum

Folds and processes proteins

55

What is the description for the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Similar to the rough ER but without ribosomes

56

What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Synthesises and processes lipids

57

What's the description of the cell wall

Surrounds the.s in plants, algae and fungi. I'm plants and algae it's made mainly of cellulose. In fungi it made of chitin.

58

What's the function of a cell wall

Supports cells and prevents them from changing shape

59

What is the description of the cell vacuole

Found in the cytoplasm, contains cell sap - a weak solution of sugar and salts. The surrounding membrane is called the tanoplast

60

What is the function of cell vacuole

Helps maintain pressure and keep cell rigid - stops plants wilting. Also involved in the isolation of unwanted chemicals inside the cell.