Flashcards in Cell Structure Deck (60):
What do prokaryotes and eukaryotes both contain?
What are the two types of organisms?
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
What is the image recorded by an electron microscope called
What type of microscope would be used to show the detailed ultrastructure of a cell?
Name three things visible with a light microscope in both animal and plant cells
If the cells have been stained you can see the dark coloured nucleus surrounded by lighter coloured cytoplasm
Tiny mitochondria and the black line of the cell membrane are visible
In plant cells the cell wall, chloroplasts and vacuole can be seen
They contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis
What is cell sap?
A weak solution of sugar and salts
What does the vacuole contain?
What is the cell wall made of?
What is mitochondria?
Where glucose and oxygen are used in respiration to provide a source of energy for the cell
What does the cell-surface membrane do?
Holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out of the cell
What does the nucleus contain?
Contains genetic material (DNA) that controls what the cell does
What is the function of the cytoplasm?
Contains enzymes that speed up biochemical reactions
What do prokaryotic cells have which allows them to move?
Where does the DNA go in prokaryotic cells?
Floats in the cytoplasm
What don't prokaryotic cells contain?
What are the three extra organelles that only plant cells have
What are the 4 organelles in both animal and plant cells?
What are organelles
Parts of cells, each one has a specific function
What is an example of a prokaryotic cell?
What happens to the DNA molecules during cell division?
They coil up becoming shorter and thicker
What is the equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + energy
What do cellulose molecules form when they lay side by side?
What does the cell-surface membrane consist of?
A double layer of phospholipid molecules tightly packed together
Explain how substances pass through membranes through diffusion
Particles of liquids and gases move about constantly, which causes the particles to spread from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. Particles will diffuse as long as they're small enough to pass through the gaps between the phospholipid molecules. Water oxygen and carbon dioxide can do this.
Explain how substances pass through membranes in osmosis
Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
How do substances pass through the membrane through facilitated diffusion
Glucose and many other water soluble molecules are too big to diffuse through membranes, they must be helped by carrier proteins. Each substance has its own specific carrier protein, example- a molecule of glucose fits into the outside end of a glucose carrier protein. This causes the protein to change shape so the glucose can diffuse through.
How do mineral ions like sodium and potassium pass through the membrane?
Through facilitated diffusion, they had electrical charges on them so they need help by specific channel proteins
Explain how substances pass through the membrane through active transport
When a cell needs to move across the membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, it must provide energy, the substance fits into a specific carrier protein, molecules of ATP provide energy to change the shape of the protein, it can then pass through the membrane.
What is ATP?
It's used in cells to provide energy for muscle contraction, active transport and building large molecules
What is the only method to pass through membranes that requires energy?
What are the four ways substances can pass through the membrane
What is the description of cell-surface membrane
The membrane found on the surface of animal cells and just inside the cell wall of other cells. It's mainly made of lipids and protein.
What is the function of cell surface membrane
Regulates movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones.
What is the description of nucleus
Surrounded by a double membrane that contains pours. The nucleus contains chromosomes and one or more structure(s) called a nucleolus
What is the function of the nucleus
The nucleus controls the cells activities. DNA contains instructions to make proteins. The pores allow substances to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nucleolus makes ribosomes
What does the nucleolus make
What do the pores in the nucleus do
Allow substances to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm
What's the description of the mitochondria
They have a double membrane - the inner one is folded to form structures called cristae. Inside the matrix which contains enzymes involved in respiration
What's the function of mitochondrion
The site of aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration produces ATP - a common energy source in the cell. They require a lot of energy.
What is the definition of chloroplasts
Found in plant cells and algal cells. Surrounded by a double membrane and also has membranes inside called thylakoids membrane. These membranes are stacked up to form grana which are linked together by lamellae
What is the function of chloroplasts?
The site where photosynthesis takes place. Some parts of photosynthesis happen in the grana, and others in the stroma
What are the membranes inside the chloroplast called?
What forms grana?
Membranes stacked up in some parts of the chloroplasts
What is the definition of Golgi apparatus
A group of fluid filled membrane flattened sacs, with vesicles on the edges
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus
Processes and packages new lipids and proteins - also makes lysosomes
What is the description of the Golgi vesicle
Small fluid filled sac in the cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane and produced by the Golgi apparatus
What is the function of the Golgi vesicle
Stores lipids and proteins and transports them out of the cell
What's the description of a lysosome
Organelle surrounded by a membrane - it's a type of Golgi vesicle
What is the function for lysosomes
Contains digestive enzymes called lysozymes. These are kept separate from the cytoplasm by surrounding the membrane, can be used to digest invading cells or break down parts of the cell.
What is the description of ribosomes
Floats free in the cytoplasm or attached to the Rough endoplasmic reticulum - not surrounded by a membrane
What is the function of ribosomes
Where proteins are made
What is the description of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
A system of membranes enclosing a fluid filled space. Surface is covered in ribosomes
What is the function for rough endoplasmic reticulum
Folds and processes proteins
What is the description for the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Similar to the rough ER but without ribosomes
What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Synthesises and processes lipids
What's the description of the cell wall
Surrounds the.s in plants, algae and fungi. I'm plants and algae it's made mainly of cellulose. In fungi it made of chitin.
What's the function of a cell wall
Supports cells and prevents them from changing shape
What is the description of the cell vacuole
Found in the cytoplasm, contains cell sap - a weak solution of sugar and salts. The surrounding membrane is called the tanoplast