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Flashcards in Cell Structure Deck (45):
1

3 Domains of Life

1. Eukarya
2. Bacteria
3. Achaea

2

5 Kingdom Scheme

1. Monera
2. Protista
3. Plantae
4. Fungi
5. Animalia

3

Monera

Prokaryotic

bacteria

4

Protista

Eukaryotic

single celled

5

Plantae

Eukaryotic

Photosynthetic

6

Fungi

Eukaryotic

NOT Photosynthetic

7

Animalia

Eukaryotic

8

Importance of Cells

1. All life is made up of Cells
2. Cells are the simplest forms of life
3. structure is correlated to function
4. all cell are related from their descent from earlier cells (EVOLUTION)

9

Prokaryotic VS Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic - no divisions
Eukaryotic - membrane bound organelles

10

Prokaryotic cells

-DNA in nucleoid
-cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane
-no organelles

11

Eukaryotic Cells

-DNA in nucleus
-cytoplasm between nucleus and plasma membrane
-has organelles

12

Central Dogma of Biology

1. Replication
2. Transcription
3. Translation

13

Replication

copying of DNA

14

Transcription

rewriting DNA to RNA

15

Translation

RNA to proteins

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Nucleus

contains DNA

site for Replication and Transcription

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Ribosomes

protein synthesis

site for Translation

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Endomembrane system

regulates protein traffic and metabolic fuctions

19

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

no Ribosomes

1. Synthesizes Lipids
2. Metabolizes Carbs
3. Detoxifies drugs and poisons
4. Stores Calcium ions

20

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

1. has Ribosomes that secrete GLYCOPROTEINS
2. membrane factory
3. distributes transport vesicles

21

Golgi Apparatus/Body

made up of cisternae

1. modifies products of ER
2. makes certain macromolecules
3. sorts and packages stuff into transport vescicles

22

Lysosomes

membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes to digest macromolecules

phagocytosis

autophagy (recycle organelles)

23

Vacuoles

1. Food -storage
2. Contractile -osmoregulation
3. Central -maintain turgur pressure in plants

24

Mitochondria

plants + animal cells

generate ATP through cellular respiration

25

Endosymbiont Theory

early eukaryotic cell engulfed a nonphotosynthetic cell

evolved together

26

Chloroplasts

plants ONLY

chlorophyll for photosynthesis

27

Peroxisomes

produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water

28

Cytoskeleton

network of fibers throughout the cytoplasm

1. provide shape and structure to cell
2. interact with motor proteins for motility

29

Three Components (fiber types) of Cytoskeleton

1. Microtubules
2. Intermediate filaments
3. Microfilaments

30

Microtubules

thickest

Tubulin polymers

31

Intermediate filaments

middle range

Keratin proteins

32

Microfilaments

thinnest

Actin filaments

33

Extracellular structures

1. cell walls
2. extracellular matrix
3. intercellular junctions

34

Cell Wall

in Plant, Prokaryotes, Fungi, and some Protists

35

Cell wall is made up of...

cellulose fibers

36

Functions of Cell Wall

1. holds shape
2. osmoregulation
3. protection

37

Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

the "background" cells cling on to through INTEGRINS

38

ECM is made up of...

collagen, proteoglycans, and fibronectin

39

Functions of ECM

1. Movement
2. Adhesion
3. Regulation
4. Support

40

Cell Junctions

allowing neighboring cells to adhere, communicate, and interact with each other

41

Types of Cell Juctions

1. Tight Junctions
2. Desmosomes
3. Gap Junctions
4. Plasmodesmata

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Tight Junctions

membranes are pressed together

prevents leakage of extracellular fluid

43

Desmosomes

anchor cells together

keep cells in place

44

Gap Junctions

cytoplasmic channels

for communication

45

Plasmodesmata

Gap Junctions for Cell Wall