CELLS Flashcards Preview

BIOLOGY > CELLS > Flashcards

Flashcards in CELLS Deck (31)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is Unicellular organisms? give examples

unicellular are single-celled organisms.
examples- bacteria and yeast

2

Function of NUCLEUS

contains genetic material
controls how cells grow and work
controls cell division

3

Function of CYTOPLASM

supports cell structures
site of many chemical reactions
contains water and many solutes

4

Function of CELL- MEMBRANE

holds the cell together
controls substances entering and leaving out of the cell

5

Function of CELL WALL

gives cell extra support
defines its shape

6

Function of CHLOROPLASTS

site of photosynthesis, providing food for plants
the chlorophyll pigments absorb light energy needed for the reaction to occur

7

Function of VACOULE

contains cell sap
used for storage of certain materials
also helps support the cell

8

Function of MITOCHONDRIA

site of aerobic respiration providing energy for the cells
cells with high rates of metabolism will have significantly higher higher number of mitochondria

9

Functions of RIBOSOMES

site of production in protein synthesis

10

Functions of VESICLES

used to safely transport substances from one part of the cell to another

11

What is the function of CILIATED CELLS

movement of mucus in the trachea and bronchi

12

What are the adaptations of CILIATED CELLS

- hair- like structures called cilia which beat to move mucus and trapped particles up to the throat

13

What is the function of NERVE CELLS

conduction of impulses

14

What are the adaptations of NERVE CELLS

-LONG- so nerves can run to and from different parts of the body to the central nervous system
- has EXTENSIONS AND BRANCHES- so it can COMMUNICATE with other nerve cells
-axon covered with FATTY SHEATH which INSUALTES and SPEEDS UP the nerve impulse.

15

What is the function of RED BLOOD CELLS

-transport of oxygen

16

What are the adaptations of RED BLOOD CELLS

-BICONCAVE DISC shape INCREASES SURFACE AREA for more efficient diffusion of oxygen
-contains HAEMOGLOBIN which joins with OXYGEN to transport it
-contains NO NUCLEUS to increase the amount of space available for haemoglobin inside cell

17

What is the function of SPERM and EGG cell

reproduction

18

What are the adaptations of SPERM CELL

- the head contains genetic material
- the ACROSOME in the head contains DIGESTIVE ENZYMES so that sperm can penetrate in the egg cell
-the mid-piece is packed with MITOCHONDRIA to release energy to swim and fertilize the egg
-the TAIL enables the sperm to SWIM

19

What are the adaptations of EGG CELL

- contains a lot of CYTOPLASM which has NUTRIENTS for the growth of the early embryo
- HAPLOID NUCLEUS contains the genetic material for fertilisation
-cell membrane CHANGES AFTER FERTILISATION by a single sperm so that NO MORE SPERM can enter

20

What is the function of ROOT HAIR CELL?

absorption of water and minerals ions from cell

21

adaptations of ROOT HAIR CELL

-root hair cell increase the SURFACE AREA to ensure MAXIMUM ABSORPTION of water and mineral ions
-walls are THIN to ensure water moves through QUICKLY
-no chloroplasts present

22

What is the function of XYLEM VESSELS?

conduction of water through the plant; support the plant

23

adaptations of XYLEM VESSELS.

-OPEN ENDS, so there is continuous COLUMN OF WATER running through them
- cells are DEAD without organelles or cytoplasm to allow FREE PASSAGE OF WATER
- their walls become THICKENED with substance called LIGNIN which means they are able to help SUPPORT the plant

24

What is the function of PALISADE MESOPHYLL CELL?

photosynthesis

25

adaptations of PALISADE MESOPHYLL CELL.

- COLUMN SHAPED to maximize absorption of sunlight and FIT AS MANY IN A LAYER under the UPPER epidermis of the leaf as possible
-contains MANY CHLOROPLASTS for maximum PHOTOSYNTHESIS

26

Describe CELL

basic functional and structural units in a living organism

27

Describe TISSUES

group of cells of similar structure working together to perform the same function

28

Describe ORGANS

made from different tissues working together to perform specific functions

29

Describe ORGAN SYSTEMS

group of organs with related functions, working together to perform body functions

30

how much is 1 micrometer [um] in meter and vice versa.

1 um = 1*10^6m
1m = 10^6 um
1mm= 1000 um