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Flashcards in Cells Deck (96)
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1

What organelles have internal cell plasma membranes ? (7 answers)

Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Nucleus, Mitochondria, Lyosomes, Endosomes, Chloroplast

2

What are the 4 main functions of the internal cell membranes around the organelles ?

1.Provides a transport system
2.Separates different regions in the cell
3.Allows specialisation in the different regions
4.Creates a large surface area for enzymes to attach.

3

What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum?

Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.

4

What is the structure of endoplasmic reticulum?

It forms a system of flattened, membrane enclosed sacs (cristernae) which are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane.

5

What is the function of Smooth ER?

Smooth ER provides synthesis and transport of lipids.

6

What is the function of Rough ER?

Rough ER transports synthesised proteins (synthesised by attached ribosomes)

7

What is the structure of a Centriole?

Two hollow cylinders positioned perpendicular to one another.

8

What is the function of a Centriole?

It is used in a spindle formation (microtubes) in cell division.

9

What is the structure of a ribosome?

Its made from two subunits (ribosomal RNA and protein)

10

What is the function of ribosomes?

Protein Synthesis

11

Where are ribosomes found within the cell? (3 Answers)

1.Attached to ER
2.'Free' in Cytoplasm
3. Attached to mRNA strands to create a polysome structure.

12

What is the basic structure of a virus?

It contains two basic components, nucleic acid (single or double-stranded RNA or DNA) and a protein coat - the capsid.

13

What is the function of a chloroplast?

Photosynthesis

14

What is the structure of the Golgi Body/ Apparatus?

Similar to Endoplasmic Reticulum but more compact. It is surrounded by vesicles.

15

What is the function of the Golgi Body/ Apparatus?

A major function is the modifying, sorting and packaging of proteins for secretion. It is also involved in the transport of lipids around the cell and the creation of lysosomes.

16

What is the structure of a lysosome?

Small vacuoles are formed when parts of the Golgi body are pinched off.

17

What is the function of a lysosome?

Contain and isolate digestive enzymes, release enzymes to destroy organelles, digestion of material taken into the cell .e.g. Bacteria.

18

What are the organelles found only in plant cells?

A Cell Wall, a large central vacuole, plastids such as chloroplast.

19

What are the organelles found in both plant and animal cells?

Mitochondria, ER, Cell membrane, Golgi Apparatus, Nucleus, Cytosol, Peroxisomes, Cytoskeleton.

20

What are the organelles found only in animal cells?

Lysosomes and Centrosomes.

21

What is the definition for a specialised cell?

Modified cells to carry out a particular function.

22

What is the definition for a tissue?

A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells that carry out a specific function.

23

What is the definition of an organ?

Organs are formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.

24

Give an example of a specialised cell, one tissue and an organ.

Cardiac muscle cell, muscular tissue, the heart.

25

What is the structure of a vacuole?

Vacuoles are membrane-bound sacs within the cytoplasm.

26

What are vacuoles also called in animal cells?

Lysosomes

27

What is the function of a plant cell vacuole?

to hold material and wastes, and maintain the proper pressure within the plant cell to provide structure and support.

28

What is the function of a animal cell vacuole?

Store a variety of nutrients and waste products to prevent contamination.

29

What is the structure and function of the nucleus?

Structure - contains a nuclear membrane, chromosomes, nucleolus and cytoplasm.

Function- to store the genetic information.

30

What is chromatin?

The material of which the chromosomes of organisms, other than bacteria, are composed. (Consisting of protein, RNA and DNA)