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Flashcards in Cells Deck (14):
1

Comparing cells

The size or shape of a cell relates to its function (its job)

3

Cell wall

Only plant cells have it
One of the most important features of the plant cell
Gives the cell shape
Great strength-made of cellulose
Contains specialized molecules that regulate growth and protect from diseases
Found in plant, algae, fungi, and most bacteria

4

Cytoplasm

Gelatin like material with organelles in it inside cell membrane
Constantly flows
Aka protoplasm
Cytosol: if the organelles were removed, the soluble pat that would be left is called the cytosol. It consists mainly of water with dissolved substances such as amino acids in it

5

Cytoskeleton

Scaffolding like structure in cytoplasm
Helps the cell maintain or change its shape
Made of protein

6

Nucleus

Directs all cell activities:control center
Contains all info/instructions for what everything should do
Contains the DNA (hereditary material)
Usually largest organelle

(DNA contains all info for cells to live and do their job)
DNA stands for: Deoxyribonucleic acid

7

Nuclear membrane

Separates nucleus from cytoplasm
Controls movement of materials in and out of nucleus

8

Nucleolus

Is responsible for making ribosomes
The nucleus contains pores (nuclear pores). These are where ribosomes and other materials move in and out of the nucleus

9

Chromatin

Contains genetic code that controls cell
Made of DNA and protein

10

Chloroplast

Only in plant cell
Where photosynthesis takes place
Sunlight -> chemical energy -> used to make carbohydrates like starch that gets stored in the plant
A starch molecule is a long chain of glucose molecules strung together. Starch is used to store energy

11

Chlorophyll

Chloroplasts contain chlorophylls
Responsible for trapping the light energy from the sun
A green pigment that gives leaves and stems their color

12

Mitochondria

Organelles that release energy from food
This energy is released by breaking down food into carbon dioxide
Aka the powerhouse because they release energy from food
Some muscle cells have 20 000 mitochondria

13

Ribosomes

Help in the synthesis of proteins (help take DNA out of cell)
Made up of two parts:small and large subunits
Float freely in cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Ribosomes are made in the nucleolus

14

Cell membrane

Outer covering, protective layer around ALL cells
For cells with cell wall, cell membrane is inside the cell wall
Allows food, oxygen and water in and waste products out

15

Eukaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell: cells with membrane bound structures eg. animals, plants and fungi