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Flashcards in Cells Deck (23):

Full name for DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid


Why is the nucleus called the “control Center” of the cell?

It controls how the cell looks, functions and contains all the genetic information.


Where in the cell are the chromosomes located?

It is found in the nuclei


What do proteins do for your body?

The proteins help the cells survive, function and perform actions


What two scientists established the structure of DNA?

Watson and Crick


What are the sides of the DNA ladder made of?

Phosphate and deoxyribose sugar


What three parts make up a single nucleotide?

Phosphate, deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogen-rich


What are the 4 bases that make up the rungs of the DNA ladder?

Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guamine (A+T, G+C)


What sugar is found in DNA?

Deoxyribose sugar


How do the bases bond together in DNA?

The chemical structures have features that attract to each other and they fit together like a lock and key.


What is the shape of DNA?

Double Helix


Why is DNA called the “Blueprint of Life”?

It is called this because it controls how organisms look and function and determines characteristics.


What holds the sides of the DNA ladder together?

Nitrogen-rich bases


Define chromosomes

Chromosomes are found inside the nucleus. There are 46 chromosomes (2 sex and 44 autosomes-pairs called homologous chromosomes). They are made up of long strands of DNA and proteins.


Define genes

Is a short section of DNA that contains phosphate, deoxyribose sugar and bases and it codes for a different characteristic.


Define DNA

It is a long chain molecule that is made up of nucleotides and determines the genetic characteristic for organism


Describe the appearance of the DNA you have extracted.

The DNA I extracted looked like a long thick cloudy blob which was a long strand of DNA. Under the microscope I observed the tiny DNA strands all together


Crush the kiwi fruit

Break open the cells


Add detergent to the mixture

Dissolve the fat part of the cell wall and nuclear membrane


Add salt to the mixture

Break open the protein chains that bind around the DNA


Pour cold ethanol into the mixture

Precipitate DNA from the mixture


A person cannot see a single cotton thread 100m away, but it you wound thousands of threads into a rope, it would be visible much farther away. Explain how this statement relates to DNA.

This relates to DNA because we can’t see a single strand of DNA but when there are multiple strands together we can identify easily


Give one reason why might be important for scientist to be able to remove DNA from an organism

It is important because they can identify genetic disorders and diseases and can put research into finding a cure