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Biology > Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells Deck (26):
1

What is the function of the nucleus?
(Animal and plant cells)

It contains genetic material that controls activities of the cell. Genetic material is arranged into chromosomes.

2

What is the function of the cytoplasm?
(Animal and plant cells)

It is a gel like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes that control reactions.

3

What is the function of the cell membrane?
(Animal, plant and bacterial cells)

It holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out.

4

What is the function of the mitochondria?
(Animal and plant cells)

It is where most of the reactions for respiration takes place. Respiration transfers energy that the cell needs to work.

5

What is the function of ribosomes?
(Animal, plant and bacterial cells)

These are involved in translation of genetic material in the synthesis of proteins.

6

What is the function of the cell wall?
(Plant cells)

It is made of cellulose. It supports and strengthens the cell.

7

What is the function of the chloroplast?
(Plant cells)

This is where photosynthesis occurs which makes food for plants. They contain a green substance called chlorophyll.

8

What is the function of the large vacuole?
(Plant cells)

It contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugars and salts. It maintains the internal pressure to support the cell.

9

What is the function of the flagellum (tail)?
(Bacterial cells)

It is a long hair like structure that rotates to move the cell.

10

What are the different parts of cells called?

Subcellular structures

11

What makes bacteria cells different to animal and plant cells?

• Bacterial cells are a lot smaller than animal or plant cells
• They don't have a nucleus
• They have a tail
• They contain chromosomal DNA and Plasmid DNA

12

What is the function of chromosomal DNA?
(Bacterial cells)

It is one long circular chromosome that controls the cells activities and replication. It floats free in the cytoplasm (not in a nucleus)

13

What is the function of Plasmid DNA?
(Bacterial cells)

They are small loops of extar DNA. They aren't part of the chromosome. They contain genes for things like drug resistance, and can be passed between bacteria.

14

What is a Eukaryotic cell?

It is a cell that has true nucleus such as an animal or plant cell.

15

What is a Prokaryotic cell?

It is a cell that doesn't have a nucleus such as bacterial cells

16

Name 3 specialised cells?

Sperm cell
Egg cell
Red Blood cell
Ciliated Epithelial cell
Intestine cell

17

What is the function of an egg cell?
(Specialised cell)

It contains nutrients to feed the embryo, it has a haploid nucleus and it carries the female DNA.

18

How is the egg cell adapted to its function?
(Specialised cell)

The egg fuses once a sperm has entered meaning no other sperm can get in.

19

What is the function of a sperm cell?
(Specialised cell)

It transports the male DNA to the female's egg.

20

How is the sperm cell adapted to its function?
(Specialised cell)

It has a long tail so it can swim to the egg, it has lots of mitochondria to provide energy and it has acrosomes that store enzymes so it can digest the membrane of the egg.

21

What is the function of the Ciliated Epithelial cell?
(Specialised cell)

The cilia beat to move substances in one direction along the surface of the tissue.

22

How is the Ciliated Epithelial cell adapted to its function?
(Specialised cell)

It lines the airways to help move the mucus upto the throat so it can be swallowed and doesn't reach the lungs.

23

What is the function of the red blood cell?
(Specialised cell)

To carry oxygen around the whole body.

24

How is the red blood cell adapted to its function?
(Specialised cell)

It has a large surface area to carry as much oxygen as possible.

25

What is the function of the Intestine cell?
(Specialised cell)

Cells in the Pancreas make enzymes needed to digest certain foods in the small intestine.

26

How is the intestine cell adapted to its function?
(Specialised cell)

The enzymes are proteins and so have a lot of ribosomes.