Cells and Structure of the Immune System Flashcards Preview

Immunology > Cells and Structure of the Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells and Structure of the Immune System Deck (34):
1

What are hematopoietic stem cells?

HSCs are self-renewing, multi potent sources of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.

2

What are the niches for the HSCs?

-Osteoblasts
-Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

3

What are the main two progenitor cells that are made by HSCs?

-Common Myeloid Progenitor
-Common Lymphoid Progenitor

4

What cells are the result of common myeloid progenitors?

Thrombocytes
Erythrocytes
Mast Cells
Basophil
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Monocytes (macrophages/dendritic cells)

5

What cells are the result of common lymphoid progenitors?

T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes
Natural Killer Cells

6

What is the function of the myeloid WBCs?

They make up most of the innate immune cells and are the first defense against infection. They also present microbes to the adaptive immune cells.

7

What is the function of the neutrophils?

Phagocytosis and activation of bactericidal mechanisms

8

What is the structure of the neutrophils?

-Have 3 to 4 nuclear lobes
-Electron dense light pink staining granules

9

What is the function of the primary neutrophil granules?

- Direct toxic/enzymatic activity

10

What is the function of the secondary neutrophil granules?

- Free radical formation

11

What is the function of monocytes and macrophages?

Phagocytosis and activation of bactericidal mechanisms

Also have some antigen presentation

12

What is the structure of monocytes and macrophages?

-Large cells with eccentric vesicular nuclei
-Have abundant lysosomes

13

What is the function of dendritic cells?

Uptake of the antigen as well as antigen presentation.

14

What is the structure of the dendritic cells?

Long finger like processes to increase surface area for antigen display

15

Where do dendritic cells go for antigen presentation?

They migrate to the lymph nodes

16

What is the function of the eosinophils?

They kill antibody coated parasites

17

What is the structure of eosinophils?

They are bi lobed with bright pink granules.

18

What do eosinophils release from their granules?

Theu release highly toxic substances

19

What can chronic eosinophil activation cause?

It can damage tissue as seen in chronic allergic asthma

20

What is the function of mast cells?

Release histamine granules and granules of active agents

21

What is the structure of mast cells?

Large mononuclear cells with dark granules of histamine and heparin

22

What is the function of basophils?

Work in immunity against parasitic infection and in allergic responses.

23

What is the structure of basophils?

2-3 poorly defined nuclear lobes and dark basophilic granules.

24

What are the lymphoid WBCs?

NK Cells
T Cells
B Cells

25

Where are the T cells found?

Thymus

26

Where are the B cells found?

Bone Marrow

27

What is the structure of natural killer cells?

Large and mononuclear

28

What is the function of NK cells?

Go after cancer cells and viral infections

29

What is the structure of B cells?

Have varying B surface receptors that recognize specific antigens

30

What is the function of plasma cells?

They are the effector form of B cells and they serve to produce antibodies specific to an antigen

31

What is the function of T cells?

Cytotoxic T cells will kill infected cells while other T cells will orchestrate antibody and macrophage responses

32

What are the common molecules for myeloid cell differentiation?

IL-3 & GM-CSF

33

What are the common molecules for lymphoid cell differentiation?

IL-7

34

What are the most abundant WBCs?

Neutrophils