Cells and Tissues of the Adaptive Immune System Flashcards Preview

Immunology EXAM 1 > Cells and Tissues of the Adaptive Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells and Tissues of the Adaptive Immune System Deck (48):
1

what are the primary lymphoid organs?

thymus and bone marrow

2

what are the secondary lymphoid organs?

spleen, lymph nodes, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

3

where do all blood cells develop from ?

common pluripotent stem cells

4

where do T cells proliferate, differentiate, and complete their maturation?

the thymus

5

where do B cells proliferate, differentiate, and complete their maturation?

bone marrow

6

what kind of receptors are localized on the surface of T and B cells?

Ag - specific receptors

7

explain the structure of Ag-specific receptors on T and B cells.

the structure varies from one cell to another but they are all identical on a single cell.

8

if naive lymphocytes do not recognize Ag, how long does it take them to die?

1 to 3 months

9

What another name for treg cells?

hassall's corpuscle

10

cytokines IL-1 IL-2 IL-6 and IL-7 play an important role in the development of which cell?

T cells

11

what do naive cells refer to?

B cells or T cells that have not yet been exposed to Ag

12

where are naive cells maintain ?

in the periphery without proliferating

13

what are the two different kinds of T cells developed? what do they express

T helper cells which express CD4 and provide help for B cell growth and differentiation

cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) express CD8 and recognize and kill virus-infected cells

14

where to functionally mature T cells migrate to ?

to secondary lymphoid tissues to mediate protection

15

at birth what color is bone marrow?

all red

16

what color is bone marrow in adults?

half red and half yellow

17

where does differentiation into B cells occur before and after birth?

before in fetal liver
after birth in thymus

18

lymphocytes continuously circulate reaching various parts of the body except which few?

eye, brain, and testicles

19

in search of foreign Ags, lymphocytes enter the secondary lymphoid organs vis a specialized endothelium of post capillary venues called what?

high endothelium venules HEV

20

cells of HEV express high levels of ______ that serve as what?

adhesion molecules

"homing" receptors for lymphocytes

21

Lymphocytes transmigrate by what?

by diapedesis into the tissue in response to chemokine

22

Lymphocytes reenter the circulation via what?

via efferent lymph vessels that merge into the thoracic duct

23

lymphocytes may be activated by foreign Ags in these secondary lymphoid tissue, but if not, and they're still naive lymphocytes, they will return to the blood by what?

lymphatic drainage

24

Explain the steps in activation of B cells.

naive B cells migrate into the secondary lymphoid tissue where they look for and respond to soluble foreign Ags

Ag activated b cell proliferate in germinal centers and mature into memory cells or into plasma cells

plasma cells is terminally differentiated b cells which produce and secrete large amount of Abs

in the spleen, Ag activated b cells primarily produce Abs against microbial in the blood

25

in the spleen, t cell and b cell zones makes up the _____ pulp.

white pulp

26

Explain the steps in activation of T cells.

in search of foreign Ag, naive T cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes

t cells which were activated by Ags differentiate into effector or memory t cells

some effector and memory t cells migrate back into the peripheral sites of infection

some activated and differentiated T cells remain in the LNs and help AG activated B cells to become "an Ab factory"

27

the naive cells enter the lymph node through what?

an artery leaving the circulation by moving across the HEV

28

B and t cells migrate to different zones of the lymph node directed by what?

by chemokines that are produced in these areas by stroll cells

29

Das pick up Ags from the sites of Ag entry and enter through what?

through afferent lymphatic vessels

30

where do Das migrate in the lymph node?

to the T cell rich areas of the node

31

what type of follicles can be found in the lymph nodes?

primary and secondary

32

in the absence of Ag stimulation, explain the follicles in the lymph nodes.

follicles are primary follicles, composed of naive b cells or recirculating memory B cells

33

with Ag stimulation, b cells proliferate and differentiate converting the primary follicle into what?

into a secondary follicle or germinal center

34

Professional APCs are:

dendritic cells
tissue macrophages
b cells

35

Do T cells of B cells need APC?

T cells

36

What are APCs?

they are cells that capture, process, and display Ags to T lymphocytes and provide signals that stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of the lymphocytes

37

Which cells provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity?

DCs and tissue Macrophages

38

Das are part of the _____ lineage.

myeloid

39

Das can be broadly divided to what?

classical Das, myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs)

40

what are DCs derived from?

monocytes

41

classical Das, pDC and langerhan's cells (LCs) in epidermis of the skin, develop directly from what?

from stem cells

42

what do DCs use to acquire Ags?

use phagocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and pinocytosis

43

activated DCS also secrete what?

cytokines

44

where do classical Das reside?

in skin, mucosa, and organ parenchyma

45

upon activation by microbes, classical Das migrate to lymph nodes where they display what to T lymphocytes?

display microbial protein Ags to T lymphocytes

46

plasmacytoid DCs are early cellular responders to what?

to viral infection

47

what do plasmacytoid DCs recognize and produce?

recognize nucleic acids of intracellular viruses

produce soluble interferons a.k.a. IFN-alpha/beta

48

IFN-alpha/beta have potent _____ activities

antiviral