Cells, Matrix, Ossification, Bone Density, Bone Variation Flashcards Preview

Spinal Exam One > Cells, Matrix, Ossification, Bone Density, Bone Variation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells, Matrix, Ossification, Bone Density, Bone Variation Deck (26):
1

What are the four basic tissues of the human body

epithelial, muscle, neural and connective tissue

2

What is osteology

the study of bone

3

What is the function of each type of bone cell

Osteoblasts- form bone
Osteocytes-maintain or nurture bone
Osteoclast-Remodel bone

4

What are the three primary cell types of bone

osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts

5

What are the bone cells embedded in

an amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers and various minerals

6

What is the primary constituent of the ground substance

glycosaminoglycans

7

What types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bones

chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates and hyaluronic acid

8

What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone

collagen type 1

9

What are the primary constituents of the bone mineral

calcium, phospate, citrate and carbonate ions

10

What is the most frequently described deposit in bone

hydroxyapatite

11

Bone is also the repository for what additional ions

Sodium, magnesium, fluoride, lead, strontium and radium

12

What is Wolff's Law

living tissue will respond to stressors; bone is formed or absorbed in response to stress

13

What are the three responses of bone that allow it to be described as "living"

it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors and to age

14

What is bone the embryological derivative of

mesenchyme or cartilage

15

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in messenchyme

intramembranous ossification

16

What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification

from the second to third month in utero

17

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage

endochondral ossification

18

What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage

from the second to the fifth month in utero

19

What part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification

chondrocranium

20

Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification

the clavicle

21

What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance

primary centers of ossification appear before birth
secondary centers appear after birth

22

Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density

cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous or trabecular bone

23

What is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface

subchondral bone

24

What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone

the periosteum

25

What is the name given to the fibro-cellular lining of bone

the endostium

26

What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone

1) sexual dimorphism (gender variation)
2) ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation)
3) geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation)
4) idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)