Flashcards in Cellular Immune Response, Transplants, & Disorder/Diseases Deck (19):
How are T cells activated?
By binding with recognized antigens
What must the antigen be presented by for the T cells to activate?
Macrophages must present the antigen to the T cells
What is essential for activation and clonal selection of cells?
What do APCs do with antigens? (2)
1. Engulf the antigen
2. Process it
How do T cells notice the "non-self" and "self" types?
By coupling with specific glycoproteins and APCs surface
State the specialization of cytotoxic T cells and describe its attack. (6)
1. Specialize in killing viral infections (cancer or foreign cells)
2. Bind tightly to foreign cells
3. Release toxic chemicals called perforin and granzymes from its granules
4. Enters the foreign cell’s plasma membrane → lethal hit → pores appear in the target cell’s membrane
5. The granzymes (protein-digesting enzymes) are then able to enter and kill the foreign cell
6. Cytotoxic T cell then detaches and seeks other prey to attack
What are the two toxins that cytotoxic T cells release? (2)
Describe the role of helper T cells (5)
1. Circulate through the blood recruiting other cells to fight off invaders
2. Release a variety of cytokine chemicals that act to rid the body of antigens by
3. Circulating cytotoxic T cells and B cells to grow and divide
4. Attracting other types of white cells (neutrophils)
5. Enhancing the ability of macrophages to engulf and destroy microorganisms
List and briefly describe the 4 types of grafts. (4)
1. Autograft - tissue transplanted from one site to another on the same body
2. Isograft - tissue graft is taken from one with the same genetics (twins only)
3. Allograft - tissue is taken from a person who isn’t an identical twin
4. Xenograft - tissue is harvested from a different animal species
How do disorders of immunity occur? (3)
1. Body (immune system) loses the ability to determine “friend or foe”
2. Body produces antibodies (auto-antibodies) → T cells attack itself and one’s own tissue
3. Allergies = hypersensitivities
What major effect does rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have on the body?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) → destroys joints
What major effect does myasthenia gravis have on the body?
Myasthenia Gravis → Impaired communication with nerves and skeletal muscles
What does multiple sclerosis do to the body?
Multiple Sclerosis → Destroys white matter of the brain and spine
What is the main sign of graves’ disease?
Graves’ Disease → thyroid produces too much thyroxine
What does type 1 diabetus mellitus do to the body?
Type 1 diabetus mellitus → destroys pancreatic beta cells, resulting in the deficient production of insulin
What is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) → systemic disease that occurs mainly in young women and particularly affects the kidneys, heart, lungs, and skin
What is glomerulonephritis?
Glomerulonephritis → severe impairment of kidney function due to acute inflammation
State the role of regulatory T cells and how it fulfills its role. (2)
1. Help prevent uncontrolled or unnecessary immune system activity
2. Release chemicals that suppress the activity of both T and B cells