Cellular/molecular Physiology And Neurophysiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cellular/molecular Physiology And Neurophysiology Deck (183):
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Define homeostasis and explain its significance in health, normal physiology and disease

Homeostasis = relatively stable condition of internal environment that results from regulatory system actions

1

Explain homeostasis when body temp goes down

Blood vessels constrict and sometimes we curl up, which decreases the heat loss from our body. We will shiver as well, which increases heat production

2

What's the difference between steady state and equilibrium?

In steady state, energy (ex. heat) must be added continuously to maintain a constant condition. In equilibrium, no input of energy is required for the variable to remain constant.

3

List the levels of organization in a living human, in order

Atom > molecule > macromolecule (carbohydrate, lipid, etc) > organelle > cell > tissue > organ > organ system > organism

4

List and explain all the fundamental activities of life, seen in a cell

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5

Compare and contrast cell division from differentiation.

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6

Name and recognize the 4 major tissue types

Nervous, muscle, epithelial, connective

7

Distinguish the subtypes of epithelial tissue.

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8

List the functions of each type of epithelium.

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9

Contrast the 3 types of muscle tissue regarding their structure and function

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10

List the components of connective tissue.

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11

Describe the function of the different parts of connective tissue.

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12

Describe the tissue components of an "organ"

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13

Recall and list the components of body fluid.

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14

Contrast and describe the ICF and ECF

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15

List the electrolyte concentrations for each compartment

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16

Explain and give example of negative feedback loop

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17

Explain and provide example of positive feedback loop

Positive feedback accelerates a process, leading to an "explosive" system. An example is birth (parturition) and the secretion of oxytocin for uterine contractions.

18

Describe and provide example of reflex arc

Neural or hormonal component that mediate a reflex; usually include receptor, afferent pathway, integrating center, efferent pathway, and effector. The reflex for minimizing the decrease in body temperature. See pg 11

19

Describe and provide example of feedforward

Feedforward is an aspect of some control systems that allows system to anticipate changes in a regulated variable. An example is smelling food, which triggers nerve responses from odor receptors in the nose to the digestive system. This induces saliva to be secreted and causing the stomach to churn and produce acid.

20

Understand the different forms of chemical messengers.

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21

Discuss the structure and function of the cell membrane: lipid bilayer, integral and peripheral proteins, and carbohydrates

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22

Explain Hereditary Spherocytosis and its genetic defect

Hereditary spherocytosis is a condition that affects red blood cells. People with this condition typically experience a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice), and an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly). Mutations in at least five genes cause hereditary spherocytosis. These genes provide instructions for producing proteins that are found on the membranes of red blood cells. These proteins transport molecules into and out of cells, attach to other proteins, and maintain cell structure. Some of these proteins allow for cell flexibility; red blood cells have to be flexible to travel from the large blood vessels (arteries) to the smaller blood vessels (capillaries). The proteins allow the cell to change shape without breaking when passing through narrow capillaries.
Mutations in red blood cell membrane proteins result in an overly rigid, misshapen cell. Instead of a flattened disc shape, these cells are spherical. Dysfunctional membrane proteins interfere with the cell's ability to change shape when traveling through the blood vessels. The misshapen red blood cells, called spherocytes, are removed from circulation and taken to the spleen for destruction. Within the spleen, the red blood cells break down (undergo hemolysis). The shortage of red blood cells in circulation and the abundance of cells in the spleen are responsible for the signs and symptoms of hereditary spherocytosis.
Mutations in the ANK1 gene are responsible for approximately half of all cases of hereditary spherocytosis. The other genes associated with hereditary spherocytosis each account for a smaller percentage of cases of this condition.

23

Explain desmosomes, gap junctions, and tight junctions

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24

Describe and explain the process of free diffusion as it applies to molecular transport.

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25

Memorize and duplicate Fick's Law and use it to compute flux

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26

Explain the effect of each variable in Fick's Law

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27

Define and explain carrier mediated transport (CMT)

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28

Define competition and saturation kinetics as they relate to CMT

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29

Describe the steps and process of Uniport CMT

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30

Describe the process of glucose transport, GLUT-4, and how this changes in diabetes mellitus

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31

Contrast free diffusion and CMT

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32

List the four clinical aberrations that occur without insulin. Explain how each of these occurs (mechanism).

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33

Explain AT and list its properties

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34

List and explain the steps in the sodium potassium pump

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35

Name three examples of Primary AT

Sodium-Potassium Pump (Na+/K+ -ATPase), Ca2+ -ATPase, H+ -ATPase, H+/K+ -ATPase

36

Describe secondary AT and contrast it from Primary. How are these important for homeostasis?

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37

Describe the mechanism of Digitalis. How does this affect the heart?

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38

Explain and illustrate the process of osmosis. Explain osmotic pressure.

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39

List the variables in van't Hoffs Law and know the equation

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40

Define osmolarity

Total solute concentration of a solution; measure of water concentration in that the higher the solution osmolarity, the lower the water concentration

41

Define the Reflection Coefficient and compose an example of a molecule with a high and low RF describing the physiological significance.

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42

Define non-penetrating solutes, contrast this with penetrating solutes

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43

Define "third-spacing" and explain the significance of this concept on disease

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44

Describe and explain the concept of Tonicity, contrasting the 3 forms.

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45

Analyze the process of a healthy cell placed in a hypotonic solution

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46

Describe and contrast 3 different forms of endocytosis

Endocytosis is the process in which plasma membrane folds into the cell, forming small pockets that pinch off to produce intracellular, membrane-bound vesicles. The three types are pinocytosis (cell drinking), phagocytosis (cell eating), and receptor-mediated.

Pinocytosis is used to engulf ions, nutrients, or any other small extracellular molecule. An endocytotic vesicle encloses a small volume of extracellular fluid (which whatever solutes are present).

Phagocytosis is used to engulf bacteria or large particles, such as cell debris from damaged tissues. Pseudopodia (extensions of the plasma membrane) fold completely around the particle. The pseudopodia then fuse into large vesicles called phagosomes. Inside the cell, the phagosomes join with lysosomes and the contents of the phagosomes are destroyed by lysosomal enzymes and other molecules. Only a few types of cells (ex. cells of the immune system) use phagocytosis.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the SPECIFIC uptake of ligands (any molecule or ion that binds to protein surface by non-covalent bonds) in the ECF by regions of the plasma membrane that invaginate and form intracellular vesicles. Ex. Cholesterol (a building block for plasma and intracellular membranes)

47

Define and explain the six properties of receptor-ligand kinetics

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48

Compare, contrast and define down-regulation and up-regulation

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49

List the 3 possible outcomes of receptor activation

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50

Explain the process of Signal Transduction (ST). Compare and contrast protein vs. steroid pathways/mechanisms

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51

List the 5 key steps in G-protein signal transduction (ST)

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52

Critique the G-protein system, construct 3 potential mechanisms you could design to interfere or block with this mechanism.

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53

Explain the mechanism of ligand-gated ST

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54

List the steps and contrast TK, JK, and C-Calmodulin mechanisms of ST

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55

Design a drug "XTK" that would inhibit Tyrosine Kinase ST

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56

Define anabolic, catabolic, and metabolism

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57

Explain the process of a chemical reaction, energy of reaction, activation energy, and reversibility

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58

Define calorie and kilocalorie

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59

List the 4 parameters that regulate reaction rate

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60

Contrast activation energy from energy of the reaction

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61

Define and illustrate the Law of Mass Action

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62

Explain the utilization of enzymes in metabolism

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63

List 5 major properties of enzymes

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64

Draw, recognize and explain the following enzyme kinetic curves: substrate vs rate, 2X enzyme, affinity modulation, positive and negative effectors, competitive and non-competitive inhibitors

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65

Contrast competitive from non-competitive inhibition of enzymes

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66

Illustrate and explain allosteric and covalent inhibition

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67

Define cofactors and coenzymes

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68

Contrast non-competitive inhibition from irreversible inhibition

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69

Design and illustrate a multi-enzyme pathway, controlled via negative feedback inhibition

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70

Draw and label the basic structure of a neuron

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71

List the properties of myelin and describe the process of myelination

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72

Demonstrate the benefit of myelin

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73

Describe Saltatory Conduction and Electronic current; explain the process

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74

Compare and contrast anterograde from retrograde axonal transport

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75

List 3 diseases that utilize axonal transport

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76

Explain the theory of Tao proteins and its mechanisms for dementia

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77

Classify, distinguish, and analyze the three different neuron types

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78

Define synapse

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79

Reproduce and label a functional synapse.

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80

Describe what is meant by "unidirectional" regarding synapse.

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81

List and describe the 5 types of Glial cells of the nervous system.

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82

Describe the limitations and potential of axonal regeneration

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83

List the 4 divisions of the brain.

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84

Describe the major functions of the 4 lobes of the cortex

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85

Contrast pyramidal from non-pyramidal cells in the CNS

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86

List the components of Basal Ganglia

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87

List the parts and function of the diencephalon

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88

Locate the diencephalon 'roughly' on a CT or MRI of the brain

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89

Contrast gray and white matter in the CNS

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90

List the functional parts and structural components of the limbic system

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91

Describe the basic structure and function of the cerebellum.

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92

Construct a list of symptoms or findings a patient would have who suffered a loss of cerebellum functions--what would that patient demonstrate?

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93

Deduce possible symptoms and signs of a patient with limbic system dysfunction

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94

List the major functions of the Reticular formation

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95

Memorize and list the 12 cranial nerves--names and major functions

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96

Describe the innervation of "taste"

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97

Deduce and describe a patient with a left 6th cranial nerve palsy

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98

Explain the CN's involved in pupil constriction

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99

Which CN are efferent only?

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100

Illustrate the basic structure of the spinal cord

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101

List the 31 spinal nerves (ie. Cervical 1-8,,,,)

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102

Diagram the major sensory and motor spinal cord tracts

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103

Diagram the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): two neuron system, synapses, neurotransmitters, divisions, brain and cord involvement

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104

Contrast sympathetic from parasympathetic ANS: region, length of preganglionic, location of ganglia, general functions, and specific differences

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105

Diagram the three pathways for sympathetic postganglionic neurons

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106

Memorize and list the adrenergic and cholinergic receptors

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107

Synthesize the specific functions/effects of each receptor type

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108

List the places muscarinic receptors are found and which sub-types

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109

Contrast single from dual innervation of ANS

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110

List the general effects of each division of ANS

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111

Explain the specific effects of ANS on: arterioles, veins, lungs, heart, intestines, eyes, bladder

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112

Describe the effects of the following drug classes: cholinergic agonist, adrenergic agonist, antagonist

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113

Contrast cholinergic muscarinic from nicotinic antagonists

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114

Define the concept "potential" as it apples to voltage, current and resistance and diagram a "potential difference."

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115

Contrast and compare diffusion potential from equilibrium potential

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116

Memorize the Nernst Equation and understand its significance for calculating EQ potentials: know the EQ potentials for most common ions

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117

Explain the Resting membrane potential (RMP), how it is derived, its significance, and how it is altered with electrolyte disturbances

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118

Understand the effect of hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, hyponatremia on the Action Potential and graded potential

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119

Learn the GHK equation and understand its meaning for RMP and action potential

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120

Describe the Electrogenic principle

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121

Define and contrast: depolarization, hyperpolarization, influx, efflux

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122

Define and describe "action potential" and contrast AP from RMP, from diffusion potential

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123

List, describe and explain the four major phases of an AP

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124

Recite the properties of voltage-gated sodium, potassium channels, and distinguish these from leak channels

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125

Describe the permeability of the neuronal membrane to specific ions at each phase of the RMP and AP

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126

Contrast absolute from relative refractory periods; explain the mechanism behind each of these

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127

Define "graded potential" and contrast it from AP and give 3 examples of where GP is found

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128

Explain AP propagation process

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129

Contrast the synapse from the neuromuscular junction

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130

Define convergence and divergence

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131

List the steps of synaptic signaling mechanism

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132

Contrast Ionotropic from Metabotropic binding to post-synaptic receptors

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133

List and explain the 3 mechanisms by which NT are removed from the cleft

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134

Explain reuptake

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135

Contrast the mechanisms of EPSP from IPSP

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136

Explain the temporal and spatial summation

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137

Discuss the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic mechanisms that determine synaptic strength

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138

Explain and define each of the following NT as far as chemical structure, synthesis, release, and degradation: catecholamines, acetylcholine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, glycine, substance P, nitric oxide

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139

Describe the structure, function and organization of skeletal muscle, the neuromuscular junction and the mechanism of a "single fiber contraction"

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140

Know and memorize the function of Troponin, Tropomyosin, Actin, and Myosin. Be sure to have a detailed understanding of how a single fiber contracts; the steps involved

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141

Describe the "sliding filament" and the cross-bridge mechanism

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142

How might disease effect this mechanism (cross bridge)? What is rigor mortis? Define the mechanism of Excitation-Contraction Coupling.

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143

How is Calcium required for muscle contraction?

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144

Define the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum T tubules anatomy and function

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145

Describe the function and structural aspects of the DHP and Ryanodine receptor complex

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146

Define a Motor Unit

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147

Describe, draw, and explain in detail the neuromuscular junction including NT, receptors, presynaptic neuron, motor end-plate

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148

Differentiate Isometric from Isotonic contraction

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149

Contrast tension and load

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150

Describe the process of a single muscle twitch; its mechanism and terminology

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151

Understand the Load-Velocity relationship; length-tension, summation, optical length

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152

Describe the role of creatine Phosphate

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153

Describe the concept of oxygen debt and lactic acid build up. How is this clinically important?

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154

Compare and contrast the three types of muscle fibers

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155

Describe and memorize the descending motor pathways (corticospinal)

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156

Contrast Pyramidal from Extrapyramidal pathways; explain the importance and the function of the Extrapyramidal pathways. Why are they named this

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157

Define hypertonia, hypotonia, and spasticity

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158

Differentiate Neurotransmitters from neuromodulaters

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159

Know the major NT and NM: acetylcholine, amines, amino acids, neuropeptides. Describe each NT and NM in each major class and function on the post-synaptic cell

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160

Know and discriminate CNS and PNS anatomy and structure: forebrain, cerebellum, brainstem

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161

Describe the structure and function of the limbic system

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162

Understand the structure and function of Autonomic Nervous System

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163

Know the cranial neves by number and major functions

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164

Understand the effect of hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, hyponatremia on the Action potential and graded potential

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165

Define the Receptor Potential as it relates to Sensory Receptor

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166

Differentiate primary sensory coding

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167

Learn the major ascending and descending pathways

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168

Contrast upper from lower motor neurons

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169

Gain a basic understanding of the Association Cortex and Perception as it relates to processing sensory information

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170

Describe somatic sensation; differentiate the different sensations (touch from temperature)

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171

Describe pain pathways, Nociceptors, and the mechanisms of pain sensation and blockage

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172

Describe the special sense of vision, its mechanisms, photoreceptors

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173

Contrast color from black and white vision

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174

Differentiate Rods and Cones and how they are functionally different

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175

Describe and diagram the anatomy of the eye

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176

Describe the mechanism of the special sense of hearing; transformation of sound waves into the hair cells of the inner ear

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177

Describe the mechanism of balance and the necessary systems for balance and ambulation to occur

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178

Define the process of Lateral Inhibition

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179

Describe phantom pain and its mechanism

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180

Define and list the principles of Sensory System Organization

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181

Describe and explain the cerebellum and its contribution to movement

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182

How is body movement integrated and what mechanisms are responsible for graceful movement; describe the pathology of Parkinson's disease

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