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Flashcards in Cellular Transport Deck (21):
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Cytolysis

The dissolution or destruction of a cell.

1

Plasmolysis

Shrinkage or contraction of the protoplasm away from the wall of a living plant or bacterial cell, caused by loss of water through osmosis.

2

Turgor Pressure

The pressure exerted on a plant cell wall by water passing into the cell by osmosis. Also called hydrostatic pressure

3

Osmosis

Diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute concentration until there is an equal concentration of fluid on both sides of the membrane.

4

Pinocytosis

Introduction of fluids into a cell by invagination of the cell membrane, followed by formation of vesicles within the cells.

5

Endocytosis

A process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell.

6

Exocytosis

A process of cellular secretion or excretion in which substances contained in vesicles are discharged from the cell by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the outer cell membrane.

7

Carrier Protein

A protein that transports specific substance through intracellular compartments, into the extracellular fluid, or across the cell membrane.

8

Passive transport

The movement of a chemical substance across a cell membrane without expenditure of energy by the cell, as in diffusion.

9

Diffusion

diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal

10

Facilitated diffusion

Transport of substances across a biological membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule. Since the substances move along the direction of their concentration gradients, energy is not required.

11

Ion channel

pore-forming membrane proteins whose functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume.

12

Concentration gradient

a gradual change in the concentration of solutes in a solution as a function of distance through a solution.

13

Hypertonic

Having a higher osmotic pressure in a fluid relative to another fluid.

14

Hypotonic

having a lesser osmotic pressure in a fluid compared to another fluid

15

Equilibrium

The condition in which all acting influences are balanced or canceled by equal opposing forces.

16

Isotonic

Having equal tension.

17

Contractile vacuole

a specialized vacuole of eukaryote cells, especially protozoa, that fills with water from the cytoplasm and then discharges this externally by the opening of a permanent narrow passage.

18

Phagocyte

A cell that engulfs and digests debris and invading microorganisms

19

Active transport

A kind of transport wherein ions or molecules move against a concentration gradient, which means movement in the direction opposite that of diffusion – or – movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Hence, this process will require expenditure of energy, and the assistance of a type of protein called a carrier protein.

20

Phagocytosis

the process of engulfing a solid particle by a phagocyte or a protist to form an internal phagosome