Flashcards in Central (c.900-c.1300) Deck (31)
What enhanced papal authority in the 11th century? What did this lead to?
'Gregorian Reform' - this led to a long dispute between the papacy and the Western German empire known as the Investiutre Contest.
What did the 1122 settlement at the Concordat of Worms do for emperors?
Weakened their 'universalist' claims, but not their material powers.
What else enhanced papal authority?
Crusades from 1095 onwards and developments in church law in the 12th century.
Why, under Pope Leo IX, did the Eastern and Western churches permanently fall out?
Because in the 1050s Leo had claimed universal authority for the papacy across East and West - the Eastern Church couldn't accept this.
Name 2 things that Pope Gregory VII wanted to reform.
For clerical celibacy and against simony (the buying of church offices).
How did the Papacy head in a new direction under Urban II? Name two examples.
What church (canon) law enhanced papal influence?
Declaring the First crusade, and having the administration take on new French titles like chancellor and chamberlain.
Gratian's Decretum in the 12th century - the most comprehensive collection of canon law.
What 3 main things was the Lateran Council of 1215 focused on?
What, in simple terms, was the investiture contest? What could the King and Pope now do after the Concordat?
Rules on marriage
Increased education of clergy.
More moves against heresy.
It was a dispute over whether abbots and bishops could have their jobs given to them by secular figures (laymen).
The Concordat allowed Kings to invest clergymen with 'regalia' and the Pope could invest them with 'spiritual ability'.
What is one of the most famous monastic rules that became the standard in the Western church? What's 3 of the things that it said?
What were the 3 periods of medieval monasticism?
The rule of St Benedict - monks should engage in communal prayer, poverty and observe obedience.
Up until the 11th century - Benedictine rule almost universal.
late 11th - early 13th century - emergence of new orders like the Templars + Cistericians...no more Benedictine monopoly.
Early 13th century onwards - friars experience real growth.
Who joined a nunnery and became a saint, investing her family with an aura of sanctity? What was an ulterior motive?
Edith, daughter of King Edgar of Wessex; but, the family gave patronage to monasteries along with other aristocrats to help with their social and political struggles.
When was the Council of Clermont? What did it entail? When was the first crusade?
1095; Pope Urban II's speech that is seen by many to have kickstarted the crusade; 1096-99.
What 4 new states were established as a result of the crusades?
The crusades carry on until what date with the fall of what?
The County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli.
1291; w/the fall of Acre.
Why were Christians initially peaceful? Give three reasons for why they now weren't?
"Blessed are the meek" in the Bible....but the Church was intertwined with Christian kingdoms led by warrior kings, and in the late 11th century the Pope was more of a political body. It needed to justify violence in defence of the Church.
Indeed, conflict with secular powers like Germnany meant reliance on those like Anselm of Lucca to justify Christian violence in defence of the Church.
What two other powers was the Papacy concerned with?
Why did Jerusalem factor into religious culture at the time of the Crusades?
The Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world, which was made up of expansionist terriotiral power like Latin Christians, e,g, the Norman migration to South Italy from c.1000.
Because it was where Christ's miracles happened...can be seen as a huge relic in and of itself.
What two crusader motivations did two periods of time give crusaders?
What are two reasons for the eventual failure of the crusaders in the East?
1950s - emphasis on crusaders as land-hungry sons who would not inherit.
1970s - emphasised crusaders as people who wanted to save their soul.
Internal strife in the West and dwindling interest in crusade participation.
What's the definition of chivalry? (hint = a system) What could it also mean?
A knightly system of feudal times with its attendant religious moral and social codes.
A style of warfare.
What was the Lord-Vassal relationship?
What was a knight known as in the late 11th century? What came about in the 13th century?
The Lord grants fiefs and owes protection to the vassal. In return, the vassal owes military service and aids.
Late 11thC = a mounted warrior.
13th century - there were more rituals marking knighthood and social obligation.
Name 3 things that made a knight a knight. What was the 'Dubbing Ceremony'?
Landholding ; conferred by royalty; their behaviour.
The Dubbing Ceremony = to equip a man with arms and make him a knight.
Name 3 aspects of the chivalric code.
Was knighthood more secular or more religious?
1. The code incorporated Church precepts like not harming the poor / women.
2. Had literary aspects, e.g. secular literature of courtly love of 12th century like 'Lancelot'
3. Entailed respect for honourable enemy.
Secular - knighthood was conferred by laymen, and the principal commitment of the knight lay with the Lord who had dubbed him.
What was an activity at tournaments? Name 3 purposes of tournaments.
Jousts (individual fights); training for war - Henry II's sons went to France to seek glories of tournaments; to acquire booty + prizes (but corruption experienced from 13th C.); a form of entertainment.
What did chivalric orders do for notions of chivalry and heraldry? Give an example of a chivalric order.
Name 1 reason for why there was a connection between chivalry and the real world, and 1 for why there wasn't.
It institutionalised these notions, with an example being Edward III and the Order of the Garter in the 1340s.
Yes, there was a connection: it encouraged men to train.
No, there wasn't a connection - development of longbow and artillery meant a 1v1 fight was becoming a thing of the past.
What was a 7th century definition of heresy?
What did sources against heresy before the mid-13th century consist of? After mid-13th?
A baptised person's persistence in a wrong/deviating belief.
Chronicles + sermons; rise in inquisition manuals (more on people's minds).
From when was Western Christendom united? What was heresy like at this point?
What's a specific heresy case from the 11th century?
From c.650 (when Lombards abandoned Arianism); sporadic evidence of dissatisfaction, but no clear challenge to the Church.
The Gnostics group, sentenced to burning at the Synod of Orleans (first time of burning since antiquity).
Give 2 reasons for why Gregorian Reform arguably encourage heresy?
What was the church's response against heresy? (Name 3 points).
Publicity for clerical abuses; growth of papal government under reformers led to criticism of corruption at the Curia - to cast aside Papal ownership (argued by Arnold of Brescia).
No specific policy before the 13th century; most extreme military action = Albigensian crusade; official start of inquisiton was from 1233 onwards.
What did dualism believe? When did it get going? What did the Cathars believe?
Christ + the devil both sons of God; gets going in the 10th century, and ideas move along trade routes to the West.
Cathars believed that devil + God were equal.
Why did Heresy develop in Languedoc (Southern France)? (2 reasons). Why did it develop in Northern Italy? (2 reasons).
1. Language and cultural diffs with the rest of France.
2. Fragmented political structure in France - County of Toulose, of Foix, etc.
1. Politics - city states refused to be ruled by German emperors, so there were lots of diff political authorities. Cities wanted no outside interference.
2. More industry and more trade...conflicts with the urban proletariat (e.g. Cathars).
How were Jews treated in terms of heresy? What did Bob Moore believe in? (quote)
Tolerated, but still segregated; Bob Moore believed in the "formation of a persecuting society" between 1000 and 1200-50.
From (when), what did schools in areas of France start to focus on?
What (and when) did book production fall into the hands of?
From the late 11th century, they started to focus on pupils not linked to the Church (e.g. Abelard).
From the late 11th century, book production fell into the hands of freelance scribes.
What kind of school developed (and when) and what did this allow for? Examples of places?
Give an example of a higher school pupil and his career path.
Higher schools from the late 11th century - allowed for greater specialisation. Examples include Bologna + Paris.
Otto of Freising, a secular cleric student who became a Cisterican.
What had more scope (and when)? Example?
What other encouragement was there from courts? Example?
Courts had more scope in the 12th century, as counts of Blois-Champagne ran courts too.
Encouragement to authors through patronage, e.g. poet Marie de France likely had links to English court.