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Neuroanatomy > Cerebellum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cerebellum Deck (66):
1

What is the function of the cerebellum

integrates, coordinates and synchronizes motor activity of skeletal (striated) muscle; influences activity of both UMNs in cerebral cortex and LMNs in the brain and spinal cord

2

Does the cerebellum act at a conscious or subconscious level

subconscious

3

True or False: The cerebellum initiates movement.

False. The cerebellum influences movement but does not initiate it.

4

The primary fissure separates what two lobes?

anterior from posterior

5

the posterolateral fissure separates what two lobes?

posterior from flocculo-nodular

6

What are the four deep cerebellar nuclei from medial-lateral?

Fastigial nucleus
Globose nucleus
Emboliform nucleus
Dentate nucleus

7

Which is the largest cerebellar nucleus?

Dentate nucleus

8

What is the interposed nucleus

Globose & emboliform nuclei can be lumped together in the interposed nucleus (interposed between medial fastigial and lateral dentate)

9

What nucleus provides the largest output from the cerebellum?

dentate nucleus

10

Where do axons of dentate nucleus leaving the cerebellum cross?

superior cerebellar peduncle

11

What part of the brainstem attaches to the inferior cerebellar peduncle?

medulla

12

What fibres all enter the inferior cerebellar penduncle?

spinocerebellar
cuneocerebellar
olivocerebellar
vestibular nuclei (superior, medial, lateral, inferior)

13

THe vestibular nuclei project to the cerebellum via what part of the inferior cerebellar peduncle?

Juxtarestiform body (medial body)

14

What is the composition of the inferior cerebellar peduncle?

restiform body (larger)
juxtarestiform body (smaller)

15

The inferior cerebellar peduncle is largely afferent/efferent, the middle cerebellar is entirely afferent/efferent and the superior cerebellar peduncle is largely afferent/efferent

ICP - afferent
MCP - afferent
SCP - efferent

16

Which is the largest cerebellar peduncle?

middle

17

Afferents to cerebellum from pontine nuclei travel through which peduncle? What type of information do they carry?

middle cerebellar peduncle
cortico-pontine-cerebellar information(give information about motor activity to cerebellum)

18

What is the origin of outflow from the cerebellum through the superior cerebellar peduncle?

cerebellar nuclei

19

What are the incoming tracts to the superior cerebellar peduncle?

ventral spinocerebellar tract
mesencephalic nucleus of V

20

What is the difference between an intention tremor and a Parkinsonian tremor?

intention - tremor associated with intended voluntary movement
Parkinson - seen while individual is at rest

21

What cortical regions/nuclear groups are included in the vestibulocerebellum?

flocculonodular lobe
uvula
fastigial nucleus

22

What cortical regions/nuclear groups are included in the spinocerebellum?

anterior lobe
portions of vermis
paravermal cortex of posterior lobe
globose & emboliform nuclei
fastigial nucleus

23

What cortical regions/nuclear groups are included in the pontocerebellum?

lateral regions of cerebellar hemispheres
dentate nucleus

24

Where does the vestibulocerebellum receive input?

from four vestibular nuclei
directly from vestibular apparatus (ganglia)
inferior olive

25

What is the function of the vestibulocerebellum?

equilibrium
coordination of eye movements
reciprocally connected to vestibular nuclei

26

What S&S would a lesion of the vestibulocerebellum produce?

swaying, unsteadiness
wide-based, unsteady gait
difficulties with coordination of eye movements

27

Would a lesion of the vestibulocerebellum produce tremor

No

28

Where does the spinocerebellum receive its input?

dorsal & ventral spinocerebellar tracts
cuneocerebellar input
some trigeminal cerebellar input
inferior olive

29

What is the function of the spinocerebellum?

posture & gait

30

What S&S would a lesion of the spinocerebellum produce?

staggering, uncoordinated gait
cerebellar ataxia
problems with tone and reflexes
rigidity and hyperreflexia

31

A medullablastoma is likely to affect what functional region of the cerebellum?

vestibulocerebellum

32

Degeneration of neurons in the anterior lobe is seen in relation to what functional region of the cerebellum? This is seen in what chronic disease?

spinocerebellum
chronic alcoholism

33

Where does the pontocerebellum receive its input?

pontine nuclei
inferior olive

34

What is the function of the pontocerebellum?

planning and execution of learned, skilled, voluntary movements (cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway) - anticipate the execution of learned, complex movements

35

What S&S would a lesion of the pontocerebellum produce?

hypotonia & hyporeflexia
dysmetria
dysdiadochokinesis/
adiadochokinesis
intention tremor

36

What cell types are included in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex?

stellate & basket cells
dendrites of Purkinje cells

37

The dendrites of the Purkinje cell layer extend up to the ______ while the axons ____

dendritic tree in molecular layer
axons leave the cortex

38

What cell types are included in the granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex?

granule and Golgi cells

39

What fibres bring input from the inferior olive to the cerebellum? Where do they go? Is their input excitatory or inhibitory?

climbing fibres
climb up the dendritic tree of Purkinje cells in the molecular layer
excitatory

40

Input from all other sources to the cerebellum (other than inferior olive) travel via what fibres?

mossy fibres

41

Where do mossy fibres end?

granule cell layer of cortex

42

What are three targets of granule cell axons and what is their effect?

Purkinje cells in dendritic tree (EXCIT)
Stellate cells (EXCIT)
Basket cells (EXCIT)

43

What is the only outlet of the cerebellar cortex? WHere does it go?

Purkinje cell axons go to corresponding cerebellar nuclei

44

What provides output from the cerebellum (with only one exception)

cerebellar nuclei

45

What type of neurons are basket cells and Stellate cells?

interneurons

46

After basket cells and Stellate cells are excited by granule cell axons, what is their effect?

INHIB Purkinje cell axons

47

Purkinje axons form excitatory/inhibitory synapses on neurons in cerebellar nuclei

inhibitory

48

Excitatory input to cerebellar nuclei is provided by ___

collaterals of axons that project to the cerebellar cortex

49

What neurotransmitter do Purkinje cells use?

GABA

50

Cortex of vestibulocerebellum provide inhibitory output to

vestibular nuclei (ICP)
fastigial nucleus

51

Fastigial nucleus of vestibulocerebellum provides excitatory input to

vestibular nuclei (ICP)
thalamus (SCP)

52

DRAW CEREBELLAR CIRCUITRY. Include peduncles, EXIT/INHIB, etc.

See notes

53

The primary fissure separates what lobes of the cerebellum

anterior lobe from posterior lobe

54

The posteriolateral fissure separates what lobes of the cerebellum

posterior lobe from flocculonodular lobe

55

What are the two components of the ICP

restiform and juxtarestiform bodies

56

What does the juxtarestiform body of the ICP contain

vestibulo-cerebellar fibres afferent to the cerebellum as well as efferent fibres projecting from the cerebellum back to the vestibular nuclei

57

The MCP consists exclusively of afferent/efferent axons to the cerebellum

afferent

58

What projections enter the cerebellum via the SCP

ventral spinocerebellar tract
projections from mesencephalic nucleus of CN V and locus ceruleus

59

What cell types are found in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex?

dendrites of Purkinje cells
stellate cells
basket cells
axons of granule cells (T parallel fibres)

60

What cell types are found in the granule cell layer?

granule cells (axons project to molecular layer)
Golgi cells (dendrites enter molecular layer)

61

Axons of cells of the inferior olive of the medulla enter cerebellum via ___ what type of fibres?

ICP
climbing fibres

62

climbing fibres - path & function

inferior olive --> ICP --> molecular layer --> EXCIT dendrites Purkinje cells

63

mossy fibres - path & function

terminate in granule cell layer
expanded terminals that make excitatory synapses upon dendrites of granule cells (rosettes)

64

Which fissure was the first to develop?

posterolateral fissure

65

Which lobe is phylogenically the oldest?

flocculonodular lobe

66

What do Golgi cells do?

form inhibitory synapses on elements in granule cell layer