Cerebellum and Brainstem Deep Structures Flashcards Preview

Clinical Neuroscience weeks 1-3 > Cerebellum and Brainstem Deep Structures > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cerebellum and Brainstem Deep Structures Deck (46):
1

What exactly does the Cerebellum do?

Modulates movement, aids in coordination and balance. Compensates for error by comparing intention with performance.

- Also contributes some to non-motor functions such as cognition, emotion and affective processing

- Appears to play a role in sequencing incoming sensory patterns and detecting temporal changes in the sequence of sensory events

2

Where are the Vermis and paravermian areas of the cerebellum located>

In the midline

3

What do the vermis and paravermian areas of the cerebellum control?

Axial musculature and trunk

4

What do the lateral hemispheres of the cerebellum control?

arms and legs

5

The floculonodular node is heavily involved in maintaining....

balance

6

Deep nuclei of the Cerebellum from lateral to medial

Dentate, Emboliform, GLobose, Fastigial

Don't Eat Greasy Foods

7

What the hell are these nuclei?

Relay points for efferent fibers travelling from the cerebellar cortex to other brain regions

8

The dentate nuclei serve what hemispheres?

The lateral ones

9

The Emboliform nuclei serve what part of the cerebellum

Paravermal zone

10

The Globose nuclei serve what part of the cerebellum?

Paravermal zone

11

The Fastigial nuclei serve what part of the cerebellum?

The Vermis

12

Know Cerebellar Afferents and Efferents bundles

ok

13

3 layers of the cerebellar cortex (gray matter) are?

- Molecular layer
- Middle Layer
- Granular Layer

14

What neuron types are found in the molecular layer?

Basket and Stellate Cells

15

What Neuron types are found in the middle layer?

Purkinje cells

16

What Neuron types are found in the Granular layer

Golgi and Granule cells

17

Only output neurons of the cerebellar cortex are?

Purkinje cells

18

The only direct input to the purkinje fibers from outside the cerebellum is?

Climbing fibers from the olivary nuclei

19

What effect do the stellate and basket cells have on the purkinje fibers

inhibitory

20

Input from mossy fibers into the cerebellar cortex first passes through what?

Cerebellar glomerulus...These mossy fibers then synapse with the granule and golgi cell dendrites and then with Golgi axon terminals. The Granule cell then passes this modified information along to the purkinje cell

21

Three functional divisions of the Cerebellum

Vestibulocerebellum, Spinocerebellum, Cerebrocerebellum

22

Function of the Vestibulocerebellum

- made up by vestibular nuclei, flocconodular node, fastigial nuclei, inferior paravermis
coordinate eye, head, neck movements and maitain balance

23

Function of the spinocerebellum

- made up of vermis, superior paravermian layers, anterior lobe
coordinate trunk and proximal limb movement

24

Function of the Cerebrocerebellum

- made up of lateral parts of posterior lobe

coordinate fine motor planning of limbs and anticipate sensory consequences of movements

Right cerebellar hemisphere controls right arm, body and leg

Left controls left

25

Clinical signs of cerebellar dysfunction

unstable gait, tendency to fall (sailor's gait)
- jerky, unsmooth movements accompanied by a tremor (uncoordinated movements)
- Ataxia (dis-coordination)
- Eye movement disorders
- Speech disorders

26

Superior Colliculus function

control of reflex movements that orient the eyes, head, neck in response to visual, auditory, and somatic stimuli

27

Periaqueductal gray matter

functions in the processing of autonomic and limbic activities

28

Aqueduct

connects 3rd and 4th ventricles

29

Edinger Westphal nucleus

parasympathetic innervation of the eye to constrict the iris and alter lens shape for accomodation

30

Cranial nerve III

Motor control of eyes

31

Spinothalamic tract

Fiber pathway to thalamus for pain/temperature from the periphery

32

Medial lemnisucs

Sensory pathway for proprioception connecting the nucleus gracilis and cuneatus with the thalamus

33

Medial geniculate

Thalamic relay nuclei for auditory information

34

Lateral Geniculate

Thalamic relay nuclei for visual information

35

Cerebral peduncle

fiber bundles of the corticospinal tract connecting the cerebral cortex to the brainstem

36

Optic tract

optic fibers from the optic chiasm to lateral geniculate

37

Substantia nigra

one of the nuclei involved in smooth motor control; degenerates in parkinsons

38

Red nucleus

Relay nuclei between cerebellum to the thalamus

39

Draw out brainstem structures from midbrain, pons, and upper medulla

ok

40

Know whether CN nuclei lie in the midbrain, pons, medulla, or transition points in between

ok, FA p434

41

A lesion at the base of the midbrain would cause what?

- Ipsilateral Occulomotor nerve paresis
- Contralateral hemiparesis (weakness on one side of body)
-

42

A lesion at the tegmentum (area of midbrain spanning from substantia nigra to cerebral aqueduct

- Ipsilateral occulomotor nerve paresis
- Contralateral tremor
- Contralateral ataxia

43

Midbrain base and tegmentum

Ipsilateral 3rd nerve paresis
Contralateral hemiparesis
Contralateral tremor
contralateral ataxia

44

Medial pons

contralateral hemiparesis
ipsilateral LMN
Facial paresis

45

Medial medulla

contralateral arm and leg weakness
contralateral decreasin in position/vibration
Ipsilateral tongue weak

46

Lateral medulla---fairly common

Ipsilateral ataxia, vertigo, nausea, ipsilateral decrease in face pain sensation, ipsilateral horner's Dysphagia