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Flashcards in Cerebral Cortex Deck (63):
1

what are the divisions of the cerebral cortex, and of the 3 which is most prevalent in humans

neocortex - 95 % in humans
paleocortex
archicortex

2

how many layers are in each division of the cerebral cortex

neocortex - 6
paleocortex - 3
archicortex - 3

3

what notable structure resides in the paleocortex in humans

primary olfactory cortex

4

what notable structure resides in the archicortex in humans

hippocampus

5

what is the most prevalent type of neuron in the cerebral cortex

pyramidal cell

6

the pyramidal cell is the principal projection neuron of the cortex, is it an inhibitory or excitatory projection

excitatory using glutamate neurotransmitter

7

what are dendritic spines

sites of excitatory synapses on pyramidal cell/neurons

8

dendritic spines can be modified as a result of learning, what does this mean ?

Minor changes in spine configuration lead to a better synapse efficiency
****poor spine development is reason for some forms of intellectual disability****

9

what are nonpyramidal cells ?

other cortical cell/neurons, make inhibitory synapses w/ GABA neurotransmitter

10

of the 2 types of neocortical neurons, which has long axons and which has short axons

pyramidal cell - long axons
nonpyramidal - short axons

11

what are the principal interneurons of the cortex

nonpyramidal cells

12

which layer of the neocortex would contain the most interneurons ?

granular layer

13

what is Focal Cortical Dysplasia

Where the arrangement of horizontal cortical layers is NOT organized during development
-results in seizures

14

in the primary sensory areas of the cortex, would it be composed of granular or aganular cortex

granular, b/c lots of internerurons (non-pyramidal cells)

15

in the primary motor cortex, would you find granular or agranular cortical regions

aganular. b/c have long axon projections of pyramidal cells

16

which is thicker in apperance, granular or agranular regions of the cortex ? Why ?

Agranular, b/c there are long projections (pyramidal cells)

17

What specific Brodmann area is known as the primary motor cortex

precentral gyrus (area 4)

18

what specific Broddmann are is the primary somatosensensory cortex

postcentral gyrus (area 3,1,2)

19

which is more constant among individuals, the total cortical volume, or specific size of Brodmann areas

total cortical volume very constant
Brodmann areas can vary b/w people

20

who was the famous patient who got a rod blown through his head causing left prefrontal lobe damage

Phineas Gage

21

what are the 4 neocortical regions in reference to function

-primary sensory
-primary motor
-association
-limbic

22

the sensory area of the cortex has a topographical organization, but that map has areas that are disproportionately large ? what are these areas and why are they so big ?

fingers and fovea
***highly sensitive areas=larger cortex area****

23

in what lobe of the cortex is the primary somatosensory cortex found in

parietal lobe

24

what part of the parietal lobe is involved with language comprehension

inferior left parietal lobule

25

where is the primary visual cortex found in the cortex

banks of calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe

26

bilateral injury to the inferior occipital lobe would result in _______ whereas bilateral injury to the occipital-temporal junction would result in _______

-color blindness
-motion blindness

27

what lobe is the primary auditory cortex located

temporal lobe

28

where is Wernike's area on the cortex and what is its function ?

posterior L superior temporal gyrus
-language comprehension

29

where is the gustatory cortex located ?

frontal lobe and insula

30

where is the vestibular cortex located ?

superior temporal gyrus and post. insula

31

the frontal lobe of the neocortex is predominantly involved w/_________ function

motor

32

where is Broca's area and what is its function?

inferior L frontal lobe (frontal gyrus)
-production of spoken and written language

33

what is the main function of the prefrontal cortex

executive functions like personality, foresight and insight

34

What is the function of the association areas

mediate higher mental functions like language, art, music

35

what are the 2 types of association areas

unimodal association areas
multimodal association areas

36

what is the function of unimodal association areas, and where are these areas located

elaborating on primary visual areas
-adjacent to visual area on occipital lobe

37

what is the function of multimodal association areas

high level intellectual functions
-inferior parietal lobule, temporal, and frontal lobes

38

what is the definition of a dominant hemisphere, and what is the dominant hemisphere in most people ?

Hemisphere that produces/comprehends language
-usually Left

39

Language areas usually border the Left __________ ?

lateral sulcus

40

why does the lateral sulcus extend further posteriorly on the left hemisphere of the cortex vs. the right

B/c planum temporale is larger on the left

41

how do the language areas that border the left lateral sulcus stimulate the motor cortex ?

Stimulate mouth to produce involuntary grunts

42

what are the two perisylvian language areas and where are they ?

Broca's area - L inferior frontal gyrus (production)
Wernike's area - posterior L superior temporal gyrus (comprehension)

43

what is aphasia and what are the two types

Inability to use language
-Fluent
-Nonfluent

44

Damage to Broca's area would result in what type of apahasia

Nonfluent aphasia
-difficult to produce word, make few words and get by w/phrases

45

damage to Wernike's area would result in what type of aphasia ?

Fluent aphasia
-can't comprehend language, but can talk and write
(known as word salad)

46

what is the name of the area that connects Broca's and Wernike's areas

Arcuate fasciculus

47

What aspects of language are controlled in the Right hemisphere

prosody - emotional, rhythmical, emotional tone of words
**allow to tell diff. b/w question and statement**

48

what is agnosia

inability to recognizes specific things (faces, people, sounds, etc)

49

damage to what area of the cortex could cause agnosias ?

damage to unimodal association areas

50

what part of the right hemisphere produces prosody, what part comprehends prosody ?

Production - R inferior frontal gyrus
Comprehend - R posterior superior temporal gyrus
***Just like Left side w/Broca and wernike areas***

51

what part of the cortex would be injured in a patient w/contralateral neglect

R parietal lobe damage

52

what is apraxias, and damage to where at in the cortex could result in this

specific "lack of actions"
-result from damage to L parietal lobe

53

the prefrontal cortex controls executive functions, and is heavily interconnected to what thalamic nuclei

dorsomedial nucleus

54

what are the 2 broad types of the prefrontal cortex

dorsolateral
ventromedial

55

what is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in

Involved in working memory
-interconnected w/parietal association areas

56

damage to the ventromedial aspect of the prefrontal cortex would result in ?

-compulsive behavior
-inability to supress inappropriate responses/emotions
***What phineas Gage had ***

57

what is the name of the structure that allows the R and L hemispheres to communicate with eachother

commissures

58

what is the largest commisure in the brain

corpus callosum
-main connection b/w hemispheres

59

what does the anterior commissure connect

interconnects temporal lobes

60

there are only 2 places in the brain that do NOT connect R and L hemispheres via the corpus callosum, what are they ?

-Hand area
-primary visual cortex

61

Commissures are composed of A) white matter or B)grey matter

white matter

62

what is alexia w/o agraphia, and what causes this ?

ability to write, but can NOT read
-caused by disconnection syndromes (hemispheres cant communicate)

63

what are association bundles

long white matter tracts that interconnect ares of ONE hemisphere
***DO NOT CROSS midline ***