what is a gyrus?
mound of brain tissue
what is on the outer portion of the brain?
what is on the inner portion of the brain?
white matter (axons)
depression between gyrus
made of axons (white matter)
connects R and L hemispheres
what is primary motor cortex?
what is the primary sensory cortex?
what is somatotopic organization?
there is a precise place on the brain that controls each part of the body
what are piramital cells?
cells that start the cortispinal pathway for motor neurons
Broca's motor speech area
for the PRODUCTION of speech
located in the left hemisphere
damage here causes pts to be able to understand but can't talk
inability to speak due to damage to Broca's area
eye field area
for voluntary eye movements
what are the main funtions of the frontal lobe?
behavioral and personality aspects
what are the secondary motor cortex areas?
supplemental motor area
frontal eye fields
posterior parietal motor area (parietal lobe)
what is the role of the secondary motor system?
mediates complex movements produced by groups of muscles
-not involved with discrete muscle contraction
what is the primary function of the basal ganglia?
involved in motor function
what is the importance of the supplemental motor cortex area?
recieves input from basal ganglia via a relay in ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus
what is the purpose of the premotor cortex?
receives input from cerebellum via relay in ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus
-functions in motor control to orient the body in the direction of the target
what does posterior parietal motor area do?
associated with tactile discrimination in relation to reaching and guiding movements
what is sterognosis?
ability to perceive the form of an object by using sense of touch
what is statognosis?
knowing the position of the body in space
what does the prefrontal association do?
extensive connections with thalamic nuclei
has connections to limbic system (feelings)
involved in working memory (repeating a task once observed)
involved in appropriate expressions and behavior
what are other functions of the frontal lobe?
what is the primary function of the parietal lobe?
primary gustatory area (taste)
what is the purpose of the temporal lobe?
primary auditory area
primary auditory association area
(temporal and parietal lobes)
interprets meaning and comprehension of words
what is Wernicke's aphagia?
problems with damage to temporal lobe that causes lack of word comprehension
what is the purpose of the auditory association?
makes sense of auditory phenomenon
what is the main purpose of the occipital lobe?
primary visual cortex
visual association cortex
which side of the brain is more active in language?
what are the functions of the insula?
somatic sensation that is oriented inward
gut feelings of hunger, thirst, homeostatic balance
certain feelings (love, lust, disgust, gratitude)
conscious physical and emotional awareness occur here