CFD3- Craniofacial growth and functional appliances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CFD3- Craniofacial growth and functional appliances Deck (26)
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1

Name 3 post-natal craniofacial growth.

• Neural growth pattern
• Skeletal growth pattern
• Cephalocaudal gradient

2

Name 3 characteristics of growth.

• Individual variability
• Normal Variation (percentiles)
• Pattern v Timing

3

Name the types of growth in craniofacial complex.

• Cranial vault
• Cranial base
• Nasomaxillary Complex
• Mandible

4

what are the 3 distinct regions of the skull?

-desmocranium
-Chondrocranium
-Viscerocranium

5

what is the role of the 6 fontanelles.

• Membrane covered
• Intra-membranous ossification
• Facilitate birth
• Posterior, sphenoid and mastoid fuse early
• Anterior (superior) persists until 1.5 years

6

what occurs after fontanelle fusion?

sutural growth

7

what is remodelling in response to?

neural growth

8

what are types of pathology?

• Increase in intra-cranial pressure
• Hydrocephaly
• Microcephaly
• Craniosynostoses (FGFR-2)

9

Craniosynostoses.

• More than 100 syndromes
• Phenotypic delineation
• Overlapping clinical features
• Not confined to the Calvaria
• Facial, oral, cardiac, vertebral and renal

10

what does apert syndrome relate to?

coronal fusion- turricephaly

11

what does plagiocephaly relate to?

saggital and coronal fusion

12

what ossification forms the cranial base (chondrocranium)?

endochondral

13

name the synchondroses.

-sphenocciptial
-intersphenoid
-sphenoethmoidal

14

Describe the formation of chondrocranium.

• Centers of ossification on either side of synchondrosis
• Endochondral mechanism - cartilage grows rapidly & replaced by bone
• Cartilage interposed between large sections of bone, which form of the ethmoid, sphenoid and basioccipital bones

15

what controls primary growth centre?

genetic and epigenetic control

16

Nasomaxillary complex.

• Nasal cartilage ?
• Intra-membranous (maxilla, nasal and zygomatic)
• Apposition of bone at the sutures
• surface remodelling

17

what is the precursor of the mandible?

meckels cartilage

18

what are the stages of facial growth?

1) gets bigger
2) down and out
3) it all happens at "the back"
4) timing is important
5) velocity varies with time

19

what can cause late lower incisor crowding?

• Wisdom tooth eruption
• Mesial drift
• Lack of attrition
• Occlusal forces
• Soft tissue maturation
• Mandibular growth

20

what affect does surgical iatrogenesis :CLP have?

Surgery has a significant impact on maxillary growth that becomes progressively apparent as patients reach maturity

21

what are the roles of homeobox genes?

a) craniofacial shape and patterning
b) patterning of the dentition

22

what are homeobox genes?

• Homeotic “Master” genes
• Encoding for transcription factors
• Involved in patterning, induction, apoptosis
• Control of epithelial /mesenchymal interaction

23

How do homeobox genes work?

• Through the neural crest cells (NCC)
• Ectomesenchyme of first branchial
arch derived from the NCC
• Migration directed by homeobox genes

24

Describe embryonic craniofacial morphogenesis.

• Origin of facial mesenchyme is neural crest
• Migration/division/differentiation
• Neural, skeletal and connective tissue structures e.g. Maxilla, mandible, zygomatic nasal and cranial bones

25

Describe morphogenetic cascade.

The basic morphogenetic processes of initiation, segmentation, patterning, migration and differentiation are medicated via a series of extracellular signalling molecules in a cascade of cellular events

26

Describe homeobox genes and tooth development.

• MSX1 and MSX2 in the initiation, developmental position (patterning) and morphodifferentiation of tooth buds
• Information expressed through mesenchymal growth factors
(FGF, EGF, TGFs and BMPs)