CH 1, 2, 4, and 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 1, 2, 4, and 5 Deck (120):
1

Electrical signal traveling down the axon

Neural impulse

1

person motivated to want drugs (incentive value) but little by liking for drugs (hedonic value; want it more, but don’t like it more)
 

Incentive sensitization theory of addiction

2

To be moved into action.

Motivation

2

*integrating motivation into models or theories (evolutionary causes of eating sweets) *1 of 4 causes that lead to change in behavior

Formal Causes

2

Drive Concept

Mechanism – refers to how we do something Drive – refers to what induces us to do something

2

Form junctions with other cells

Terminal branches of axon

2


Drugs produce positive reaction (a process), drug wears off, then opponent process develops (b process), which is a negative reaction.
 

Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation

2

a short term inhibitor of further eating; released in upper part of small intestine

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

2

Zone of biological indifference is situated between a hunger boundary (eat when below) and satiety boundary (stop eating when above).
 

Boundary Model of Eating
 

2

repeated food-tasting increases liking for food
 

Mere Exposure effect

3

implies that a person knows how to perform a behavior

Knowledge

3

*Hedonic value derived from variety, temperature, sugar, and fat
*Portion size
 

Palatability of food
 

4

censor prevents impulses from entering the small room

Repression

5

*referring to material of which a thing is made (eating refers to events occurring in the brain) *1 of 4 causes that lead to change in behavior

Material Causes

6

Q image thumb

A image thumb
7

*Loss of intracellular fluid (67% of bodily fluid contained in cells) occurs when water within cells is drawn out due to higher salt concentration in extracellular fluid (remaining water that is the environment around cells).
*Extracellular fluid is lost due to sweating, urinating, breathing.
 

Cellular Thirst
 

9

nmotivates the drinking of liquids
 

Thirst

10

environmental stimulus that induces behavior; anticipated reward or aversive event available in environment.

Incentive/Goal

10

4 different causes that lead to change in behavior

Efficient causes, final causes, formal causes, material causes

10


•regulates neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. Also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone. 
 

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)

11

Examples of knowledge, competence, and motivation

Bed making, laundry, doing the dishes

12


shortage in dopamine receptor sites; more susceptible to drug use to attain pleasure
 

Reward Deficiency Syndrome

13

Properties of mind affect motivation.

Psychological source of motivation

13

large room containing repressed impulses, instincts

Unconscious

13

long been studied; including early Greeks, Descartes, and William James

Basic Emotions

15

Released energy that powers our behavior

Kinetic Energy

15

energy used for voluntary and spontaneous activity.

One type of metabolism.
 

Physical Activity

15

decline in glucose in blood

Initiates hunger and eating.

16

*Psychoactive drugs make a person feel good
*Positive reinforcement is the good feeling the drug provides, which strengthens a person’s drug use
 

Positive Reinforcement for drug use

17

plasticity and excitation, arousal, reward, and memory function.

Acetylcholine

18

*Psychoactive drugs make a person feel less bad
*the reduction of bad feelings from drug withdrawal
*strengthens drug use
*individuals are motivated to use drugs to reduce actual or anticipated negative affect that results from the withdrawal of drugs
 

Negative Reinforcement of drug use

19

*Internal source of motivation *sources internal or within a person’s body or brain *Ex: Ghrelin

Biological attributes or variables

20

Objective environment: material things affect motivation, e.g., money or university degree Cognitive environment: mental representation of things affect motivation, e.g., subjective value of money or visualizing graduation

Environmental source of motivation

21

to explain the mind’s psychological processes in terms of activity of neurons in brain

Reductionism

21

a hormone that is released from stomach

Ghrelin

23

*a nerve cell *basic building block of the nervous system

Neuron

24

Psychological Needs

Inherent characteristic that indicates a psychological deficit. Primary or viscerogenic: physiological needs such as air, water, food etc. Secondary or psychogenic – Murray classified 22 psychological needs – concerned with mental or emotional satisfaction; depend on primary characteristics

25

Actions are determined by whether they increase or decrease our happiness; object has utility for us if it provides pleasure or keeps us from experiencing pain.

Principle of unity (Bentham)

27

a long term inhibitor in adipose tissue; decreases associated with energy conservation; increases with energy expenditure. Declines as people lose weight.
 

Leptin

29

nonadaptive muscular responses that occur during intense emotion (jumping for joy)

Motor Explosion

29

nmaintaining constant internal body conditions; offsets any disturbances
 

Homeostasis

31

dependent variable or behavior is associated with the correlational variable.

Correlational research

32

Value of the experimental variable determines dependent variable (behavior)

Experimental research

33

roles in behavior and cognition, motivation, and reward, sleep, mood, attention, and learning

Dopamine

35

decrease in response to food sensory characteristics; decrease in response strength with repeated presentations of the same food.
 

Habituation

36

*young women typified by extreme weight loss, distorted body image, and trouble distinguishing when hungry or full.

•Defined as 15% below expected weight
•Intense fear of obesity and losing control over eating
•show a relentless pursuit of thinness
•Often begins with dieting

Anorexia Nervosa

37

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands

Axon

39

strong craving for drug can be reinstated with just one use or dose of that drug.
 

Drug Priming

40

taking drugs again after having abstained or having reduced one’s drug dependency

Drug Relapse

41

a universal multi-channeled reaction by which a person adapts to stimulus change

Emotion

43

*Internal source of motivation *sources internal or within a person's mind *Need to belong

Psychological attributes or variables

45

*a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons *enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses

Myelin Sheath

46

anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite, metabolism, as well as stimulating vomiting

Serotonin

47

*Indicator of emotional feelings *Signals used to satisfy social motives *pattern of muscles feeds back into the brain, providing it with information for the subjective feel of an emotion

Facial Expressions

49

5 source of motivation

Psychological, Biological, Environmental, Cognitive, Emotional

50

Freud’s Conscious-Unconscious Distinction *4 parts

Preconscious, Unconscious, Repression, Consciousness

52

Decreased liking and consumption based on specific sensory characteristics of flavor, texture, and appearance

Sensory-Specific Satiety
 

53

energy used to digest, absorb, and store food

One type of metabolism

Thermic effect

55

the pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain

Hedonism

56

being capable of performing the behavior

Competence

57

contractions are one of many sensations that correlate with hunger
 

Stomach factors

58


•cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. 
 

Glutamate

60


•produce analgesia and a sense of well-being; work as "natural fever relievers", whose effects may be enhanced by other medications
 

Endorphins

61

Internal source that pushes us into action.

Motive

62

a self-correcting process that reduces the discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state.
•Set point – condition crucial for life, comfort, or safety.
•e.g. thermostat
 

Negative Feedback System

63

Receptors in the mouth, stomach, and intestines monitor water intake.
 

Inhibitors of thrist

64

exposure to stimuli associated with drug use increases craving for drug use
 

Priming with a conditioned stimulus

65

impulses attract eye of consciousness in small room

Consciousness

66

adverse reaction to eating that results from the body’s lost ability to digest food.
 

Refeeding Syndrome

67

*1st step in sequence motivation. *select motive to satisfy or incentive to attain

Choice

68

*2nd step in sequence of motivation. *satisfies the motive or attains the incentive.

Instrumental behavior

69

*trigger behavior (sight of food triggers eating) *1 of 4 causes that lead to change in behavior

Efficient causes

70

tendency of an emotion to serve as an impulse for an action specific to the emotion being experienced.

Action Readiness

70

71

After voluntary drug use a person stops or becomes addicted

Conditioning of Drug Reactions

73

alertness and arousal (fight or flight), and influences on the reward system.

Norepinephrine

74

compared to small room containing thoughts, feelings, sensations, memories

Preconscious

76

*Positive incentives motivate approach behavior *Negative incentives motivate avoidance behavior *As incentive or goal value increases, motivation increases

External sources of motivation

77

depends on a stimulus for its occurrence

Involuntary Behavior

78

Three types of metabolism

Resting, Thermic effect, physical activity

80

Sight of food increases hunger, salivation, secretion of gastric juices, and insulin

Cephalic Responses
 

81

Cell's life support center

cell body

82

occurs independent of environmental stimulus

Voluntary Behavior

83

Three main Freudian instincts

sex, death, ego (self-preservation)

84

strong dislike due to food’s association with nausea.
 

Taste aversion

85

*craving depends on drug’s incentive value and its hedonic value
*Incentive value refers to drug’s ability to create wanting or craving
*Hedonic value refers to actual pleasure derived from using a drug
*With repeated experiences of drug use
*Incentive value or wanting for drugs increases
*Hedonic value, by contrast, remains constant or declines slightly
 

Incentive Sensitization Theory

86

Nature of body and brain affect motivation.

Biological source of motivation

87

personal feelings of affect that arise into consciousness

Subjective emotions

88

*3rd step in sequence of motivation. *end of the sequence; interacts with incentive, achieves satisfaction, e.g., diploma at end of college education.

Consummatory behavior

90

the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

Dendrite

91

brain monitors body’s energy, such as glucose and fat

Hypothalamus

92

serves as basis for feelings and action readiness for emotions.

Physiological Arousal

93

Internal body state determines if a stimulus is pleasant or unpleasant (e.g., water to a thirsty person would be considered pleasant, thus alliesthesia would motivate a person to drink the water)

Alliesthesia

94

food energy is measured in calories and comes mainly from glucose.
 

Body’s Energy Requirements

95

*aim or purpose of motivated behavior (eating provides nourishment) *1 of 4 causes that lead to change in behavior

Final causes

96

food stored in our bodies waiting to energize our bodies

Potential Energy

97

Murray’s Psychological Needs (used in paper)

Achievement, order, understanding, play, affiliation, succorance

98

Exercise Addiction - Positive addiction: compulsive behaviors that benefit health. Exercise high: euphoria, mood improvement from strenuous exercise.
*Positive: Improved physical, mental health and goal achievement.
*Negative: Relief of stress and tension.
 

Behavioral Addiction

99

refers to the brain’s neural processes issuing forth psychological or mental events in consciousness

Emergence

100

energy requirements for maintenance of body and brain type of metabolism

Resting

101

Aristotle’s Theory

one of the first to talk about a theory of motivation

102

reducing or keeping tension as low as possible
 

Pleasure Principle (Freud)

103

circumstances may keep an individual from experiencing immediate pleasure or endure discomfort if greater pleasure will result later

Reality principle (Freud)

104

satisfying consequences strengthen behavior; dissatisfying consequences weaken behavior. Led to the development of Behaviorism by John Watson.

Law of effect (Thorndike)

105

Law of effect

Edward Lee Thorndike

106

first to introduce idea of incentives for motivation
 

Hobbes

107

discussed choices in pleasure

small immediate versus large delayed rewards
 

Locke

108

109

stimuli that attract or repel
 

Incentives

110

A toxic, dependence-producing psychoactive drug, found exclusively in tobacco

Nicotine

111

Negative feelings result when drug
wears off; example of b process

Withdrawl

112

These drugs impact dopamine and opioid systems to produce pleasure.

Euphoric Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

113

Cocaine produces pleasure by blocking
 

reuptake of Dopamine

114

*cause an increase in activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system

*timulate neurons or influence dopamine that is already there in those areas
 

Psychoactive drugs

115

reduce euphoria from opiates, e.g., from heroin.
 

Antagonists

116

Motivation to use drugs is related to psychological reasoning and addiction

Psychological Explanations

117

Motivation to use drugs is based on biological changes in body and physiological addiction

Biological Explanations

118

the conditioned drug response is opposite of the unconditioned drug response
 

Conditioned compensatory response model

119

people who are stressed or who are in distress are more likely to use drugs

Comorbidity

120