Electrical signal traveling down the axon
person motivated to want drugs (incentive value) but little by liking for drugs (hedonic value; want it more, but don’t like it more)
Incentive sensitization theory of addiction
To be moved into action.
*integrating motivation into models or theories (evolutionary causes of eating sweets) *1 of 4 causes that lead to change in behavior
Mechanism – refers to how we do something Drive – refers to what induces us to do something
Form junctions with other cells
Terminal branches of axon
Drugs produce positive reaction (a process), drug wears off, then opponent process develops (b process), which is a negative reaction.
Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation
a short term inhibitor of further eating; released in upper part of small intestine
Zone of biological indifference is situated between a hunger boundary (eat when below) and satiety boundary (stop eating when above).
Boundary Model of Eating
repeated food-tasting increases liking for food
Mere Exposure effect
implies that a person knows how to perform a behavior
*Hedonic value derived from variety, temperature, sugar, and fat
Palatability of food
censor prevents impulses from entering the small room
*referring to material of which a thing is made (eating refers to events occurring in the brain) *1 of 4 causes that lead to change in behavior
*Loss of intracellular fluid (67% of bodily fluid contained in cells) occurs when water within cells is drawn out due to higher salt concentration in extracellular fluid (remaining water that is the environment around cells).
*Extracellular fluid is lost due to sweating, urinating, breathing.
nmotivates the drinking of liquids
environmental stimulus that induces behavior; anticipated reward or aversive event available in environment.
4 different causes that lead to change in behavior
Efficient causes, final causes, formal causes, material causes
•regulates neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. Also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Examples of knowledge, competence, and motivation
Bed making, laundry, doing the dishes
shortage in dopamine receptor sites; more susceptible to drug use to attain pleasure
Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Properties of mind affect motivation.
Psychological source of motivation
large room containing repressed impulses, instincts
long been studied; including early Greeks, Descartes, and William James
Released energy that powers our behavior
energy used for voluntary and spontaneous activity.
One type of metabolism.
decline in glucose in blood
Initiates hunger and eating.
*Psychoactive drugs make a person feel good
*Positive reinforcement is the good feeling the drug provides, which strengthens a person’s drug use
Positive Reinforcement for drug use
plasticity and excitation, arousal, reward, and memory function.
*Psychoactive drugs make a person feel less bad
*the reduction of bad feelings from drug withdrawal
*strengthens drug use
*individuals are motivated to use drugs to reduce actual or anticipated negative affect that results from the withdrawal of drugs
Negative Reinforcement of drug use
*Internal source of motivation *sources internal or within a person’s body or brain *Ex: Ghrelin
Biological attributes or variables
Objective environment: material things affect motivation, e.g., money or university degree Cognitive environment: mental representation of things affect motivation, e.g., subjective value of money or visualizing graduation
Environmental source of motivation
to explain the mind’s psychological processes in terms of activity of neurons in brain
a hormone that is released from stomach
*a nerve cell *basic building block of the nervous system
Inherent characteristic that indicates a psychological deficit. Primary or viscerogenic: physiological needs such as air, water, food etc. Secondary or psychogenic – Murray classified 22 psychological needs – concerned with mental or emotional satisfaction; depend on primary characteristics
Actions are determined by whether they increase or decrease our happiness; object has utility for us if it provides pleasure or keeps us from experiencing pain.
Principle of unity (Bentham)
a long term inhibitor in adipose tissue; decreases associated with energy conservation; increases with energy expenditure. Declines as people lose weight.
nonadaptive muscular responses that occur during intense emotion (jumping for joy)
nmaintaining constant internal body conditions; offsets any disturbances
dependent variable or behavior is associated with the correlational variable.
Value of the experimental variable determines dependent variable (behavior)
roles in behavior and cognition, motivation, and reward, sleep, mood, attention, and learning
decrease in response to food sensory characteristics; decrease in response strength with repeated presentations of the same food.
*young women typified by extreme weight loss, distorted body image, and trouble distinguishing when hungry or full.
•Defined as 15% below expected weight
•Intense fear of obesity and losing control over eating
•show a relentless pursuit of thinness
•Often begins with dieting
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands
strong craving for drug can be reinstated with just one use or dose of that drug.
taking drugs again after having abstained or having reduced one’s drug dependency
a universal multi-channeled reaction by which a person adapts to stimulus change
*Internal source of motivation *sources internal or within a person's mind *Need to belong
Psychological attributes or variables
*a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons *enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses
anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite, metabolism, as well as stimulating vomiting
*Indicator of emotional feelings *Signals used to satisfy social motives *pattern of muscles feeds back into the brain, providing it with information for the subjective feel of an emotion
5 source of motivation
Psychological, Biological, Environmental, Cognitive, Emotional
Freud’s Conscious-Unconscious Distinction *4 parts
Preconscious, Unconscious, Repression, Consciousness
Decreased liking and consumption based on specific sensory characteristics of flavor, texture, and appearance
energy used to digest, absorb, and store food
One type of metabolism
the pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain
being capable of performing the behavior
contractions are one of many sensations that correlate with hunger
•cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain.
•produce analgesia and a sense of well-being; work as "natural fever relievers", whose effects may be enhanced by other medications
Internal source that pushes us into action.
a self-correcting process that reduces the discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state.
•Set point – condition crucial for life, comfort, or safety.
Negative Feedback System
Receptors in the mouth, stomach, and intestines monitor water intake.
Inhibitors of thrist
exposure to stimuli associated with drug use increases craving for drug use
Priming with a conditioned stimulus
impulses attract eye of consciousness in small room
adverse reaction to eating that results from the body’s lost ability to digest food.
*1st step in sequence motivation. *select motive to satisfy or incentive to attain
*2nd step in sequence of motivation. *satisfies the motive or attains the incentive.
*trigger behavior (sight of food triggers eating) *1 of 4 causes that lead to change in behavior
tendency of an emotion to serve as an impulse for an action specific to the emotion being experienced.
After voluntary drug use a person stops or becomes addicted
Conditioning of Drug Reactions
alertness and arousal (fight or flight), and influences on the reward system.
compared to small room containing thoughts, feelings, sensations, memories
*Positive incentives motivate approach behavior *Negative incentives motivate avoidance behavior *As incentive or goal value increases, motivation increases
External sources of motivation
depends on a stimulus for its occurrence
Three types of metabolism
Resting, Thermic effect, physical activity
Sight of food increases hunger, salivation, secretion of gastric juices, and insulin
Cell's life support center
occurs independent of environmental stimulus
Three main Freudian instincts
sex, death, ego (self-preservation)
strong dislike due to food’s association with nausea.
*craving depends on drug’s incentive value and its hedonic value
*Incentive value refers to drug’s ability to create wanting or craving
*Hedonic value refers to actual pleasure derived from using a drug
*With repeated experiences of drug use
*Incentive value or wanting for drugs increases
*Hedonic value, by contrast, remains constant or declines slightly
Incentive Sensitization Theory
Nature of body and brain affect motivation.
Biological source of motivation
personal feelings of affect that arise into consciousness
*3rd step in sequence of motivation. *end of the sequence; interacts with incentive, achieves satisfaction, e.g., diploma at end of college education.
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
brain monitors body’s energy, such as glucose and fat
serves as basis for feelings and action readiness for emotions.
Internal body state determines if a stimulus is pleasant or unpleasant (e.g., water to a thirsty person would be considered pleasant, thus alliesthesia would motivate a person to drink the water)
food energy is measured in calories and comes mainly from glucose.
Body’s Energy Requirements
*aim or purpose of motivated behavior (eating provides nourishment) *1 of 4 causes that lead to change in behavior
food stored in our bodies waiting to energize our bodies
Murray’s Psychological Needs (used in paper)
Achievement, order, understanding, play, affiliation, succorance
Exercise Addiction - Positive addiction: compulsive behaviors that benefit health. Exercise high: euphoria, mood improvement from strenuous exercise.
*Positive: Improved physical, mental health and goal achievement.
*Negative: Relief of stress and tension.
refers to the brain’s neural processes issuing forth psychological or mental events in consciousness
energy requirements for maintenance of body and brain type of metabolism
one of the first to talk about a theory of motivation
reducing or keeping tension as low as possible
Pleasure Principle (Freud)
circumstances may keep an individual from experiencing immediate pleasure or endure discomfort if greater pleasure will result later
Reality principle (Freud)
satisfying consequences strengthen behavior; dissatisfying consequences weaken behavior. Led to the development of Behaviorism by John Watson.
Law of effect (Thorndike)
Law of effect
Edward Lee Thorndike
first to introduce idea of incentives for motivation
discussed choices in pleasure
small immediate versus large delayed rewards
stimuli that attract or repel
A toxic, dependence-producing psychoactive drug, found exclusively in tobacco
Negative feelings result when drug
wears off; example of b process
These drugs impact dopamine and opioid systems to produce pleasure.
Euphoric Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine
Cocaine produces pleasure by blocking
reuptake of Dopamine
*cause an increase in activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system
*timulate neurons or influence dopamine that is already there in those areas
reduce euphoria from opiates, e.g., from heroin.
Motivation to use drugs is related to psychological reasoning and addiction
Motivation to use drugs is based on biological changes in body and physiological addiction
the conditioned drug response is opposite of the unconditioned drug response
Conditioned compensatory response model
people who are stressed or who are in distress are more likely to use drugs