Flashcards in ch 1 Deck (96):

1

## atom

### submicroscopic particles/building blocks of ordinary matter

2

## molecule

### two or more atoms joined together

3

## chemistry

### studies behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules

4

## hypothesis

### educated guess, must include "because"

5

## experiment

### tests hypothesis, revision of hypothesis?

6

## law

### describes WHY natures does it, summarizes a series of related observation

7

## law of conservation of mass

### matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction

8

## theory

### describes WHAT nature does, gives the underlying reasons for related observation

9

## atomic theory

### each element is composed of atoms, all atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties, atoms combine in simple, whole numbered rations to form compounds

10

## matter

### anything that occupies space and has mass

11

## state

### solid, liquid, gas

12

## solid

### fixed shape, fixed volume

13

## liquid

### definite volume, shape of container

14

## gas

### no fixed shape or volume

15

## crystalline

### atoms/molecules in patterns with long-range repeating order and is well organized

16

## amorphous

### no long range order of atoms/molecules

17

## pure substance

### one component

18

## mixture

### two or more components

19

## element

### one type of atom

20

## compound

### combination of two or more atoms

21

## heterogeneous mixture

### see difference

22

## homogeneous mixture

### uniform

23

## decanting

### separating separating mixtures by pouring the top layer into another container

24

## distillation

### separating mixtures by heating and boiling off/vaporizing

25

## volatile

### tending to vaporize easily

26

## filtration

### separating mixtures by pouring it through a filter

27

## physical change

### alter only state of appearance but not composition

28

## chemical change

### atoms rearrange and change into a difference substance

29

## physical property

### a substance displays without changing it's composition

30

## chemical property

### a substance displays only by changing its composition via a chemical change

31

## energy

### the capacity to do work

32

## work

### action of a force through a distance

33

## kinetic energy (KE)

### associated with motion of an object

34

## potential energy (PE)

### associated with position or composition

35

## thermal energy

### kinetic energy associated with the temperature of an object

36

## meter

### m, SI length

37

## kilogram

### kg, SI mass

38

## mass

### a measure of the quantity of matter within it

39

## second (s)

### SI time

40

## kelvin (K)

### SI temperature

41

## temperature

### a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules that compose the matter

42

## I gal= ? oz

### 128 oz

43

## 1 Liter = ? oz

### 33.81 oz

44

## 1 Liter= ? gal

### 0.26 gal

45

## density (d)

### mass/ volume

46

## intensive property

### one that is independent of the amount of the substance

47

## extensive property

### one that is dependent of the amount of substance

48

## which figures are significant?

### all non zero digits, sandwiched zeros, trailing zeros that are after a decimal, trailing zeros that are before a decimal but after a nonzero digit

49

## how many grams in a pound?

### 453.59 g

50

## accuracy

### how close the measurement is to the actual value

51

## precision

### how close of a series of measurements are to one another, or how reproducible they are

52

## random error

### error that has equal probability of being too high or too low

53

## systematic error

### error that is constantly too high or too low

54

## dimensional analysis

### using units as a guide to solving problems

55

## conversion factor

### a fractional quantity with the units we are converting FROM on bottom to the units we are converting TO on top

56

## scientific approach

###
1. observation

2. hypothesis

3. experiment

4. theory

57

## at sea level, water freezes at

###
273 K

0 *C

32 *F

58

## at sea level, water boils at

###
373 K

100 *C

212 *F

59

## F- celsius to kelvin

### C + 273

60

## F- kelvin to celsius

### K - 273

61

## F- fahrenheit to celsius

### (F - 32) / 1.8

62

## F- celsius to fahrenheit

### [1.8 (C)] + 32

63

## E

###
exa

10^18

64

## P

###
peta

10^15

65

## T

###
tera

10^12

trillion

66

## G

###
giga

10^9

billion

67

## M

###
mega 10^6

million

68

## k

###
kilo

10^3

thousand

69

## h

###
hecto

10^2

hundred

70

## da

###
deca

10^1

71

## d

###
deci

10^ -1

tenth

72

## c

###
centi

10^ -2

hundredth

73

## m

###
milli

10^ -3

thousandth

74

## μ

###
micro

10^ -6

millionth

75

## n

###
nano

10^ -9

billionth

76

## p

###
pico

10^ -12

trillionth

77

## f

###
femto

10^ -15

78

## a

###
atto

10^ -18

79

## F- volume

### mass/ density

80

## F- mass

### volume x density

81

## which figures are not significant/ambiguous?

### leading zeros, numbers without a decimal should be avoided

82

## SN, add/sub rules

### all exponents must be converted to the same power of 10, then add digit terms

83

## SN, mult/div rules

### digit terms are multiplied in the normal way, exponents are added. or divided and exponents are subtracted

84

## SF, add/sub, result carries

### same # of decimal places as fewest decimal places

85

## SF, mult/div, result carries

### same # of sig fig as factor with the fewest sig figs

86

## SN powers rules

### multiply power with digit terms and with other powers (foil)

87

## SN root rules

### change exponent if necessary so that the number is divisible by root. remember: taking the square root of a number is the same as taking that number to the ^ 1/2 power

88

## volume

### a measure of space

89

## how many grams in an oz?

### 28.35 g

90

## how many oz in 1 lb?

### 16 oz

91

## how many grams in a kilogram?

### 1000 g

92

## how many cm in 1 m?

### 100 cm

93

## how many mm in 1 m?

### 1000 mm

94

## how many ft in 1 m?

### 3.28 ft

95

## how many inches in 1 m?

### 39.37 in

96