ch 1 Flashcards Preview

Chem 200 > ch 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in ch 1 Deck (96):
1

atom

submicroscopic particles/building blocks of ordinary matter

2

molecule

two or more atoms joined together

3

chemistry

studies behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules

4

hypothesis

educated guess, must include "because"

5

experiment

tests hypothesis, revision of hypothesis?

6

law

describes WHY natures does it, summarizes a series of related observation

7

law of conservation of mass

matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction

8

theory

describes WHAT nature does, gives the underlying reasons for related observation

9

atomic theory

each element is composed of atoms, all atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties, atoms combine in simple, whole numbered rations to form compounds

10

matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

11

state

solid, liquid, gas

12

solid

fixed shape, fixed volume

13

liquid

definite volume, shape of container

14

gas

no fixed shape or volume

15

crystalline

atoms/molecules in patterns with long-range repeating order and is well organized

16

amorphous

no long range order of atoms/molecules

17

pure substance

one component

18

mixture

two or more components

19

element

one type of atom

20

compound

combination of two or more atoms

21

heterogeneous mixture

see difference

22

homogeneous mixture

uniform

23

decanting

separating separating mixtures by pouring the top layer into another container

24

distillation

separating mixtures by heating and boiling off/vaporizing

25

volatile

tending to vaporize easily

26

filtration

separating mixtures by pouring it through a filter

27

physical change

alter only state of appearance but not composition

28

chemical change

atoms rearrange and change into a difference substance

29

physical property

a substance displays without changing it's composition

30

chemical property

a substance displays only by changing its composition via a chemical change

31

energy

the capacity to do work

32

work

action of a force through a distance

33

kinetic energy (KE)

associated with motion of an object

34

potential energy (PE)

associated with position or composition

35

thermal energy

kinetic energy associated with the temperature of an object

36

meter

m, SI length

37

kilogram

kg, SI mass

38

mass

a measure of the quantity of matter within it

39

second (s)

SI time

40

kelvin (K)

SI temperature

41

temperature

a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules that compose the matter

42

I gal= ? oz

128 oz

43

1 Liter = ? oz

33.81 oz

44

1 Liter= ? gal

0.26 gal

45

density (d)

mass/ volume

46

intensive property

one that is independent of the amount of the substance

47

extensive property

one that is dependent of the amount of substance

48

which figures are significant?

all non zero digits, sandwiched zeros, trailing zeros that are after a decimal, trailing zeros that are before a decimal but after a nonzero digit

49

how many grams in a pound?

453.59 g

50

accuracy

how close the measurement is to the actual value

51

precision

how close of a series of measurements are to one another, or how reproducible they are

52

random error

error that has equal probability of being too high or too low

53

systematic error

error that is constantly too high or too low

54

dimensional analysis

using units as a guide to solving problems

55

conversion factor

a fractional quantity with the units we are converting FROM on bottom to the units we are converting TO on top

56

scientific approach

1. observation
2. hypothesis
3. experiment
4. theory

57

at sea level, water freezes at

273 K
0 *C
32 *F

58

at sea level, water boils at

373 K
100 *C
212 *F

59

F- celsius to kelvin

C + 273

60

F- kelvin to celsius

K - 273

61

F- fahrenheit to celsius

(F - 32) / 1.8

62

F- celsius to fahrenheit

[1.8 (C)] + 32

63

E

exa
10^18

64

P

peta
10^15

65

T

tera
10^12
trillion

66

G

giga
10^9
billion

67

M

mega 10^6
million

68

k

kilo
10^3
thousand

69

h

hecto
10^2
hundred

70

da

deca
10^1

71

d

deci
10^ -1
tenth

72

c

centi
10^ -2
hundredth

73

m

milli
10^ -3
thousandth

74

μ

micro
10^ -6
millionth

75

n

nano
10^ -9
billionth

76

p

pico
10^ -12
trillionth

77

f

femto
10^ -15

78

a

atto
10^ -18

79

F- volume

mass/ density

80

F- mass

volume x density

81

which figures are not significant/ambiguous?

leading zeros, numbers without a decimal should be avoided

82

SN, add/sub rules

all exponents must be converted to the same power of 10, then add digit terms

83

SN, mult/div rules

digit terms are multiplied in the normal way, exponents are added. or divided and exponents are subtracted

84

SF, add/sub, result carries

same # of decimal places as fewest decimal places

85

SF, mult/div, result carries

same # of sig fig as factor with the fewest sig figs

86

SN powers rules

multiply power with digit terms and with other powers (foil)

87

SN root rules

change exponent if necessary so that the number is divisible by root. remember: taking the square root of a number is the same as taking that number to the ^ 1/2 power

88

volume

a measure of space

89

how many grams in an oz?

28.35 g

90

how many oz in 1 lb?

16 oz

91

how many grams in a kilogram?

1000 g

92

how many cm in 1 m?

100 cm

93

how many mm in 1 m?

1000 mm

94

how many ft in 1 m?

3.28 ft

95

how many inches in 1 m?

39.37 in

96

how many meters in 1 mi?

1609.34 m