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Flashcards in Ch 1 Deck (29):
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Hindsight bias

Finding that something has happened makes it seem inevitable

1

Overconfidence

Often lead us to overestimate our intuition, more confident than correct

2

Critical thinking

Smart thinking: examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates confidence, and assesses conclusions

3

Scientific theory

Make observations, form theories, and then refine their theories in the light of new observations

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Theory

Explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behaviors or events

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Hypothesis

Testable predictions

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Replication

Repeating research study, with different participants and different situations

7

Case study

Psychologists study one individual in great depth to find things true in all of us

8

Survey

A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of people, questioning a representative

9

False consensus effect

Tendency to overestimate others agreement with us

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Population

All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

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Random sample

A sample that fairly represents a population because each member gas an equal chance in inclusion

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Naturalistic observation

Watching and recording the behavior of organisms in their natural environment

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Correlate

When surveys and naturalistic observation reveal that one trait or behavior accompanies another

14

Scatterplots

Illustrates perfect positive and negative correlations, rarely occur in the real world

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Illusory correlation

Perceive nonexistent correlation, help explain superstitious beliefs

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Experiment

Investigator controls situation, infer cause and effect

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Double blind procedure

When research participants and researcher staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the participants have received treatment or placebo

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Placebo effect

Effect on behavior caused by expectations alone

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Experimental condition

Participants who are exposed to the independent variable

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Control conditions

Participants serve as comparison for evaluating effect of treatment

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Random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance

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Independent variable

Experimental factor that is manipulated

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Dependent variable

Outcome factor, variable May change in response to manipulations

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Mode

Most frequently occurring scores in a distribution

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Mean

Average of a distribution

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Median

Middle score in a distribution

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Range

Difference between highest and lowest scores

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Standard deviation

Measure of how much scores vary