CH. 1-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH. 1-3 Deck (67):
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Logic

the organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguments

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Argument

a group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (the conclusion)

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Statement

a sentence that is either true or false

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Truth Values

two possible values for statements: either true or false.

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Premise

the statements that set forth the reasons or evidence

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Conclusion

the statement that the evidence is claiming to support or imply

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Premise Indicator Words

Since, because, for, inasmuch as, as shown by, for the reason that, as indicated by, in that, may be inferred from, as, given that, seeing that, owing to

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Conclusion Indicator Words

therefore, hence, so, thus, accordingly, consequently, as a result, wherefore, we may infer, we may conclude, it must be that, for this reason, entails that, it follows that, implies that

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Inference

the reasoning process expressed by an argument; term is often used interchangeably with “argument”

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Proposition

the meaning or information content of a statement; term is used interchangeably with “statement” for our purposes

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Simple & Compound (Hypothetical, Disjunctive, Conjunctive)

types of propositions

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Factual Claim

a claim that states something is true or factual

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Inferential Claim

a claim that something is proven by a given fact; the claim that the passage expresses a certain kind of reasoning process; a claim that something supports or implies something or that something follows from something

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Simple Non-Inferential Passages, Expository Passage, Illustration, Explanation, Conditional Statement

types of non-arguments

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Warning, Piece of advice, Statement of belief/opinion, Loosely associated statements, Report

simple non-inferential passages

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Explanandams

“explained” – the statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained; the “conclusion” of the explanation; what is being explained by the rest of the passage

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Explanans

“explaining” – the statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining; the “premises” of the explanation; what is doing the explaining in the passage

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Antecedent

“if x” – the component statement immediately following the “if”

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Consequent

“then y” – the component statement immediately following the “then”

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Deductive Arguments

an argument incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true; arguments that involve necessary reasoning

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Argument based on mathematics, Argument from definition, Syllogism, Categorical syllogism, Hypothetical syllogism, Disjunctive syllogism

types of deductive arguments

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Inductive Arguments

an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true; arguments that involve probabilistic reasoning

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Prediction, Argument from analogy, Generalization, Argument from authority, Argument based on signs, Causal inference, Particular statement, General statement

types of inductive arguments

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Valid Argument

true premises and a true conclusion

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Invalid Argument

true premises and a false conclusion

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Sound Argument

valid argument and/or true premises

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Unsound Argument

one or more false premises and/or invalid argument

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Strong Argument

conclusion can't be false; true premises

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Weak Argument

conclusion is false

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Cogent Argument

strong argument and/or true premises

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Uncogent Argument

weak argument and/or one or more false premises

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Counterexample Method

a method to determine the invalidity of deductive arguments consisting of isolating the form of the argument and then constructing a substitution instance having true premises and a false conclusion

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Cognitive Meaning

conveying information

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Emotive Meaning

expressing or invoking feelings

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Value Claim

a claim that something is good, bad, right, wrong, or better or worse, more important or less important than some other thing

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Vague Expression

imprecise, lacking borderlines

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Ambiguous Expression

multiple meanings

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Term

any word or arrangement of words that may serve as the subject of a statement

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Intension

consists of the qualities or attributes that the term connotes

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Extension

consists of the members of the class that the term denotes

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Conventional Connotation

includes the attributes that the term commonly calls forth in the minds of competent speakers of the language

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Empty Extension

a class with no members

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Definiendum

the word or group of words that is supposed to be defined

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Definiens

the word or group of words that does the defining

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Stipulative Definition

assigns a meaning to a word for the first time

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Lexical Definition

used to report the meaning that a word already has in a language

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Precising Definition

reduces the vagueness of a word

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Theoretical Definition

assigns a meaning to a word by suggesting a theory that gives a certain characterization to the entities that the term denotes

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Persuasive Definition

engenders a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward what is denoted by the definiendum

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Demonstrative Definitons

can display the meaning of the word just by pointing

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Enumerative Defintions

names the members of the class the term denotes

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Definition by Subclass

assigns a meaning to a term by naming the subclass of the class denoted by the term

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Synonymous Definition

the definiens is a single word that connotes the same attributes as the definiendum

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Operational Definition

assigns a meaning to a word by specifying certain experimental procedures that determine whether or not the word applies to a certain thing

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Definition by Genus & Difference

assigns a meaning to a term by identifying a genus term and one or more difference words that convey the meaning of the term being defined

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1. Proper Grammar
2. Conveys the Essential Meaning
3. Not too Broad or Narrow
4. Avoid Circularity
5. Be Affirmative When Possible
6. Avoid Vague/Ambiguous Language
7. Avoid Emotional Language
8. Indicate the Context

the 8 criteria for good definitions

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Appeal to Force

do what I say, or else

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Appeal to Pity

feel sorry for me

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Appeal to the People

relies on emotion

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Against the Person

attack the person

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Accident

when a general rule is applied to a specific case it was not intended to cover

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Strawman

when an arguer distorts an opponent's argument for the purpose of more easily attacking it

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Missing the Point

when the premises of an argument support one particular conclusion, but then a different conclusion is drawn

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Red Herring

when the arguer diverts the attention of the reader or listener by changing the subject

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Appeal to Ignorance

"there is no evidence, so it must not be true"

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Hasty Generalization

one incident is applied to everything

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Gambler's Fallacy

whenever the conclusion of an argument depends on the supposition that independent events in a game of chance are causally related