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Cognitive psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind

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Mind

System that creates mental representations of the world and controls mental functions such S perception, attention, memory, emotions, language, deciding, thinking and reasoning

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What does the mind have a role in?

Memory, problem solving, and making decisions

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What does the mind do?

Creates a system that creates representations of the world so that we can act within it to achieve our goals

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Cognition

The mental processes such as perception, attention, and memory that are what the mind does

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What did donders experiment deal with?

Reaction time by how long it takes to make a decision.

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Reaction time

How long it takes to respond to ply he presentation of a stimulus.

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Simple reaction time

Reacting to the presence or absence of a single stimulus (as opposed to having to choose between s number of stimuli before making a response)

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Choice reaction time

Time to respond to one of two or more stimuli (push left button when you see left light)

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Structuralism

An approach to psychology that explained perception as the adding up of small elementary units called sensations

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Analytic introspection

Procedure used by early psychologists in which trained participants described their experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli

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What did ebbinghaus test

He tested the amount of time it takes for forgetting

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Savings

Measure used by ebbinghaus to determine the magnitude of memory left from initial learning

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Savings curve

Plot of savings versus time after original learning

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What did Watson study

Behaviorism

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What were the problems with behaviorism

1. Produced extremely variable results from person to person
2. Results were difficult to verify because they were interpreted in terms of invisible inner mental processes

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Behaviorism

Observable behavior provides the only valid dads for psychology.

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What did Watson reject

Introspection

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What was a test of behaviorism

Little Albert with the white rat

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Classical conditioning

A procedure in which paring a neutral Stimulus with s stimulus that elicits a response caused the neutral stimulus to elicit that response

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Example of classical conditioning

Loud noise with the rat (neutral stimulus) or pavlova dog with the bell

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How did skinner use operant conditioning?

To study behavior between the stimulus and response

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Operant conditioning

Type of conditioning by skinner which focuses on how behavior is strengthened by presentation of positive reinforced, such as food or social approval

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Example of operant conditioning

Rat increased pressing a bar when it was rewarded food

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Cognitive map

Mental conception of a spatial layout

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What did Edward tolmans experiment do

Used a rat and a maze to find food and switched it in places

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Whah did Chomsky say about language

He said language is inborn biological program that holds across cultures NOT immigration or reinforcement

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Cognitive revolution

Began in 1950s from behavorists approach to an approach in which the main thrust was to explain behavior in terms of the mind

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Information-processing approach

The approach to psychology: developed beginning in the 1950's in which the mind is described as processing information through a sequence of stages

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What did Colin cherry test

Subjects listening to an intended message and an unintended message

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What did broadbent propose

A flow diagram of the mind. Goes through an input (sound) to filters (get what you want) then a detector (information that gets through)

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Artificial intelligence

Ability of a computer to perform tasks usually associated with human intelligence

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Logic theorist

Computer program devised by Alan Newell and Herbert Simon that was able to solve logic problems

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Structural models

Represent structures in the Brain that are involved in specific functions

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Process models

Illustrate how a process works

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Structural models

Representation of a physical structure

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Example of structural models

Model airplanes or a model of the brain

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Pain matrix

Involve our perception of pain

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Process models

Represent the processes that are involved in cognitive mechanisms, with boxes usually representing specific processes and arrows indicating connections between processes
Ex. Filter model for attention

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19th century cognitive psych

1850-1950. Donders (reaction time), Wundt (structuralism and introspection) , ebbinghaus (forgetting)

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Early mid 20th century death of cognition

1910-1950
Watson (behaviorism), skinner (operant conditioning)

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Mid/late 29th century cognitive revival

1950-2000
Tolmans (cognitive maps), Chomsky (language and information processing ) cherry broadbent (artificial language)

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21st century cognitive neuroscience

2000-now
Modeling