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Flashcards in CH 1 - 4 Deck (126):
1

The philosophy of exerting as little governmental control and regulation as possible. A “hands-off” philosophy of government.

Laissez-faire

1

The dose producing death in 50 percent of the population under study

LD50

1

Substances in this schedule have a low potential for abuse relative to substances in Schedule III.

Schedule IV

2

Three cocaine treatment options

Option 1: Inpatient treatment in a hospital facility
Option 2: Outpatient treatment
Option 3: Shortened inpatient program followed by intensive outpatient treatment

3

FOUR CATEGORIES OF DRUG-TAKING BEHAVIOR

-Illicit drug/instrumental use -Illicit drug/recreational use -Licit drug/instrumental use -Licit drug/recreational use

3

The nervous system consists of

the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, with the latter divided into the brain and the spinal cord.

4

Cell's life support center

cell body

5

The margin of safety is the more conservative measure in ________.

the direction of safety

6

Drugs are broken down for elimination by

enzymes in the liver

6

Process from coca to crack

-Coca leaves to coca paste (purity 60%) >
Coca paste to cocaine hydrochloride (powder cocaine/ 99% pure)>
Powder cocaine to free-base cocaine through removal of hydrochloride portion from the salt form of cocaine>
Powder cocaine to crack cocaine through treatment with baking soda (less hazardous than free-base)

7

The ratio of LD50 to ED50

Therapeutic index

8

Hindbrain

Medulla – Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration Pons – Regulates sleep stages Cerebellum – Involved in physical coordination

8

Speed, meth, crank

Methanphetamines

9

ACUTE EFFECTS OF COCAINE

Powerful burst of energy
General sense of well-being
Aphrodisiac properties disputed
Heart rate and respiration are increased
Appetite is diminished
Blood vessels constrict and blood pressure is increased
Pupils are dilated

9

Schedule I drug examples

heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), peyote, methaqualone, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“Ecstasy”).

10

The minimal dose of a particular drug necessary to produce the intended drug effect in a given percentage of the population

Effective dose (ED)

11

Integrates visual input (lobe)

Occipital

12

the capacity of a specific dose of a drug to have a gradually diminished effect on the user as the drug is taken repeatedly

tolerance

13

Lobes of the brain

Frontal – Thinking and reasoning abilities, memory, planning
Parietal – Touch recognition
Occipital – Integrates visual input
Temporal – Recognition of sights and sounds, long-term memory storage

14

A drug’s harmful effects

toxicity

15

When a person is taking the drug for the sole purpose of experiencing its psychoactive properties (e.g., to get “high”).

RECREATIONAL USE

16

EXAMPLES OF ANTAGONISTIC DRUG INTERACTIIONS

Morphine with naloxone or naltrexone Norpramin or related antidepressants with bran or oatmeal Soy products with Coumadin Broccoli, cabbage and asparagus with Coumadin

17

EXAMPLES OF HYPERADDITIVE DRUG INTERACTIONS

Alcohol with sleep medications, insulin, painkillers Headache remedies with Coumadin Lanoxin with licorice Lanoxin with bran and oatmeal Tagamet with Coumadin

17

Within the CNS, cocaine blocks the reuptake of receptors sensitive to

dopamine and norepinephrine as a result, the activity level of these two neurotransmitters in the brain is enhanced.

19

The ratio of LD1 to ED99

Margin of safety

20

Midbrain

Coordinates movement with sensory input
Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS)

21

three examples of drugs prescribed for children diagnosed with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Methylphenidate (brand name: Ritalin), dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine (brand name: Adderall), and dextroamphetamine and the amino acid lysine (brand name: Vyvanse)

21

Substances in this schedule have a high potential for abuse which may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.

Schedule II

22

roles in behavior and cognition, motivation, and reward, sleep, mood, attention, and learning

Dopamine

24

The dose producing the intended drug effect in 100 percent of the population

ED100

25

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands

Axon

26

a condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug.

Drug dependence

27

Substances in this schedule have a low potential for abuse and consist primarily of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics.

Schedule V

28

is derived from coca leaves grown in the mountainous regions of South America.

Cocaine

29

a form of drug-taking behavior that results in some form of physical, mental, or social impairment

Drug abuse

30

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF COCAINE

Formication hallucinations (cocaine psychosis)
Continuously stuffy or runny nose
Bleeding of nasal membranes (if cocaine has been snorted) Intense cocaine craving Kindling Effect – repeated cocaine use causes a hypersensitization to the drug

30

Chronic Effects of Methamphetamine Abuse

Addiction to meth is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug use which is accompanied by functional and molecular changes in the brain. Chronic users may exhibit violent behavior, anxiety, confusion, and insomnia. Tolerance results in users taking higher doses of the drug, taking it more frequently, or changing their method of drug intake Often users will forego food and sleep while indulging in a form of binging known as a “run,” injecting as much as a gram of the drug every 2 to 3 hours over several days until the user runs out of the drug or is too disorganized to continue. Chronic abuse can lead to psychotic behavior, characterized by intense paranoia, visual and auditory hallucinations, and out-of-control rages that can be coupled with extremely violent behavior. No physical manifestations of a withdrawal are evident, however, when methamphetamine use is stopped, there are several symptoms that occur including depression, anxiety, fatigue, paranoia, aggression, and an intense craving for the drug.

30

Substances in this schedule have no currently accepted medical use in the United States, a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and a high potential for abuse

Schedule I

30

Schedule III drug examples

combination products containing less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit (Vicodin®), products containing not more than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with Codeine®), and buprenorphine (Suboxone®).

31

Typical cocaine user in 1988

not gone to college, earned less than $25,000 per year, and was more likely to be smoking crack cocaine

32

Two types of drug toxicity

Chronic and Acute

32

are four basic ways to administer drugs into the body

oral administration, injection, inhalation, and absorption through the skin or membranes

32

Dangers of cocaine effects

cerebral hemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmia, or congestive heart failure

32

Substances in this schedule have a potential for abuse less than substances in previous Schedules and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.

Schedule III

32

Recognition of sights and sounds, long-term memory storage (lobe)

Temporal

33

Connects central nervous system to involuntary muscles

Autonomic system

35

the process of changing the molecular structure of a drug into forms that make it easier for the body to excrete it.

Biotransformation

35

Available data on typical methamphetamine users reveal that most are

white, are in their 20’s or 30’s, have a high school education or better, and are employed full- or part-time.

37

An index of how long urinary excretion and liver break down take is known as

half life

38

refers to the length of time it takes for the drug to be reduced to 50 percent of its equilibrium level in the bloodstream.

drug’s elimination half-life

39

produced by an excitation of the sympathetic autonomic system and an inhibition of the parasympathetic autonomic system.

effects of cocaine

39

Long-term cocaine exposure causes a depletion of

dopamine receptors, continuing as long as four months following the last instance of cocaine use

41

The dose producing death in 100 percent of the population

LD100

41

Models of drug dependencies

Physical/Psychological

42

The physical or psychological harm a drug might cause over a long period of time.

Chronic toxicity

43

When a person is taking a drug with a specific socially-approved goal in mind.

INSTRUMENTAL USE

44

alertness and arousal (fight or flight), and influences on the reward system.

Norepinephrine

46

drugs are those drugs that affect our feelings, perceptions, and behavior

Psychoactive drugs

47

Electrical signal traveling down the axon

Neural impulse

48

anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite, metabolism, as well as stimulating vomiting

Serotonin

50

parasympathetic

nurturance and renewal

50

produce analgesia and a sense of well-being; work as "natural fever relievers", whose effects may be enhanced by other medications

Endorphins

50

A phenomena that produces a heighted sensitivity to repeated administrations of some drugs such as cocaine. Opposite of the phenomn of tolerence

kindling effect

52

results from one drug substituting for whatever physiological effects have been produced by a second drug that has been discontinued.

Cross-dependence

53

Forebrain

Most sensory, emotional, and cognitive processing Two specialized hemispheres

54

Brain and spinal cord (part of nervous system)

Central nervous system

55

the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

Dendrite

57

The minimal dose of a particular drug capable of producing death in a given percentage of the population

Lethal dose (LD)

58

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59

Schedule V drug examples

cough preparations containing not more than 200 milligrams of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams (Robitussin AC®, Phenergan with Codeine®), and ezogabine.

61

an early enthusiast of cocaine as an important medicinal drug, promoting cocaine as a cure for morphine dependence and depression.

Sigmund Freud

62

First step for all treatment options is

detoxification and total abstinence

63

SOURCES OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN DRUG RESPONSES

Body weight Gender Ethnic background Expectations of the drug user

64

Acute Effects of Amphetamines

Effects resemble those of cocaine abuse In small doses meth can increase wakefulness and physical activity and decrease appetite. A brief, intense sensation, or rush, is reported by those who smoke or inject methamphetamine. Oral ingestion or snorting produces a long-lasting high instead of a rush, which reportedly can continue for as long as half a day. Both the rush and the high are believed to result from the release of very high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine into areas of the brain that regulate feelings of pleasure Heavy use results in disturbing hallucinations, compulsive or repetitive behaviors. Heavy use includes feelings of paranoia, intense mood swings, and tendencies toward violence (amphetamine psychosis). The large release of dopamine produced by methamphetamine is thought to contribute to the drug’s toxic effects on nerve terminals in the brain. High doses can elevate body temperature to dangerous, sometimes lethal, levels, as well as cause convulsions

66

Forms of drug interactions

Additive interaction (additivity) Hyperadditive (synergistic) interaction Antagonistic interaction

67

PHYSICAL SIGNS OF POSSIBLE COCAINE ABUSE

Dilated (enlarged) pupils
Increased heart rate
Increased irritability
Paranoia
Sneezing and irritability in the nose
Feelings of depression
Insomnia
Decreased appetite and significant weight loss

68

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69

cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. 

Glutamate

71

SEVEN MAJOR NEUROTRANSMITTERS

Acetylcholine - it is excitatory – produces arousal and reward
Norepinephrine - influences attention and responding actions- fight or flight response
Dopamine - motor activity, motivation, reward, sleep, mood attention, and learning
Serotonin - regulation of anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, vomiting, sexuality, and appetite
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) - inhibitory transmitter in CNS and retina, can be excitatory,
Glutamate - key in digestion; excitatory neuron; implicated in seizures
Endorphins - natural pain killers, sense of well being; feel good neurotransmitters.

72

reports the number of drug-related emergency department (ED) visits in major metropolitan hospitals in the United States

DAWN

74

The Comprehensive Drug Act of 1970 organized the federal control of drugs under five classifications called

Schedules

75

If the LD1 is 100 and ED99 is 20, then the margin of safety is

5

76

a long term inhibitor in adipose tissue; decreases associated with energy conservation; increases with energy expenditure. Declines as people lose weight.

Leptin

77

Factors in an individual’s life that decrease the likelihood of involvement with drugs and reduce the impact of any risk factor

Protective factors

78

marketed in 1932 as a synthetic form of ephedrine

The drug amphetamine (brand name: Benzedrine

79

a set of symptoms including hallucinations, paranoia, and disoriented thinking produced by chronic use of cocaine

cocaine psychosis

80

Factors in an individual’s life that increase the likelihood of involvement with drugs

Risk Factors

81

Typical cocaine user in 1983

college educated, employed, earning more than $25,000 per year, and taking cocaine powder intranasally

83

a form of tolerance that occurs when a drug is used in the same surroundings or under the same circumstances

Behavioral tolerance/conditional tolerance

84

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85

Treatment strategies for cocaine addicts

Cocaine Anonymous, cognitive-behavior therapy, and pharmacological treatments

85

Touch recognition (lobe)

Parietal

86

Readies body for activity, use of energy

Sympathetic system

87

cocaine abusers crave the drug more than ever

Even though acute effects of euphoria from cocaine are no longer strong

88

a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons *enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses

Myelin Sheath

89

Connects central nervous system to voluntary muscles

Somatic system

90

Cocaine produces pleasure by blocking

reuptake of Dopamine

92

Most drugs are eliminated from the body through

Urinary excretion

93

A chemical substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning

Drug

94

sympathetic activation

stress

95

brain monitors body’s energy, such as glucose and fat

Hypothalamus

97

Form junctions with other cells

Terminal branches of axon

99

If LD50 is 100 and ED50 is 20, then the therapeutic index is

5

101

The American Psychiatric Association currently recognizes two major conditions associated with drug-taking behavior

substance dependence and substance abuse.

103

a form of drug-taking behavior in which a prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter) drug is used inappropriately

Drug misuse

104

Readies body for energy restoration

Parasympathectic system

105

Schedule II drug examples

Examples of Schedule II narcotics include: hydromorphone (Dilaudid®), methadone (Dolophine®), meperidine (Demerol®), oxycodone (OxyContin®, Percocet®), and fentanyl (Sublimaze®, Duragesic®).  Other Schedule II narcotics include: morphine, opium, and codeine.

107

The physical or psychological harm a drug might cause to the user immediately or soon after the drug is ingested into the body.

Acute toxicity

108

*a nerve cell *basic building block of the nervous system

Neuron

109

Specific risk factors for drug taking behaviors

-Irregular school attendance -Poor relationship with parents -Getting into trouble in general -Membership in a deviant subculture Note: Economic hardship and parental abuse do not represent significant risk factors.

110

Risk factors for drug-taking behavior in adolescence include a tendency toward ________

nonconformity within society and the influence of drug-using peers.

111

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112

Schedule IV drug examples

alprazolam (Xanax®), carisoprodol (Soma®), clonazepam (Klonopin®), clorazepate (Tranxene®), diazepam (Valium®), lorazepam (Ativan®), midazolam (Versed®), temazepam (Restoril®), and triazolam (Halcion®).

113

the second of the two major psychoactive stimulants, have their origin in a Chinese medicinal herb, used for thousands of years as a bronchial dilator; its active ingredient, ephedrine, was isolated in 1887

Amphetamines

114

plasticity and excitation, arousal, reward, and memory function.

Acetylcholine

115

Relapse rate in methamphetamine abuse treatment is

one of the highest for any category of illicit or licit drug abuse

116

results from the chronic use of one drug inducing a tolerance effect with regard to a second drug that has never been used before.

Cross-tolerance

117

regulates neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. Also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone. 

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)

118

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119

Spinal and cranial nerves (part of nervous system)

Peripheral Nervous System

120

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121

drug with the closest connection to social violence

Alcohol

122

cause the user to be less inclined toward violent behavior rather than more so

heroin and marijuana

123

DAWN

Drug Abuse Warning Network

124

The dose that produces the intended drug effect in 50 percent of the population under study

ED50

125

Thinking and reasoning abilities, memory, planning (lobe)

Frontal