Ch 1-4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 1-4 Deck (176):
1

characterisitics of life

complex but ordered structure

energy utilization

regulation & homeostasis

respond to stimuli

growth & development

reproduction

evolve & adapt

2

complex but ordered structure

individuals of species all possess the same or similiar base structure

structures serves a function

butterflies have veins but in different patterns

3

energy utlization

ability to take in energy in one form and convert for use

photosynthesis of plant into a bird

4

autotroph

self feeders

5

heyerotrophs

other feeders

6

regulation & homeostasis

make internal adjustments to maintain homeostasis

jackrabbits feel with ears to adjust temp

7

growth & development

genes in dna determine everything about an organism

trees make leaves & branches with dna

8

response to environment

ability to respond to sometbing positive & away from something negative

plants grows towards light

9

reproduction

like makes like

panda makes panda

10

evolution & adapatations

ability to become better suited to environment & changes over time

lizards adapt to change color to hid

11

natural selection

nature decides best adapatations

need variation

overpopulation: best traits survive

12

antibiotic resistance

always been around

generations become resistant

virus not alive they need a host

13

taxonomy

system used to name & classify organisms

based on evolutionary relarionships

14

order of taxonomy
most to least inclusive

(domain)
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

15

3 domains

bacteria
archaea
eukaryota

16

domain bacteria

single celled
prokaryotic
normal bacteria

17

domain archaea

single celled
prkaryotic
ancient bacteria
love extreme conditions

18

domain eukaryota

single celled
multi celled
eukaryotics
everything else

19

4 kingdoms

protista
fungi
plantae
animals

20

kingdom protista

microbial grabbacks
single celled

21

kingdom fungi

single & multi celled
mold
plants

22

kingdom plantae

autotrophs (self feeders)

23

kingdom animalia

heterotrophs (other feeders)

24

binomial nomenclature

scientific name for each organism

first name is the genus (capital letter)

second word is species (lowercase)

must be in italics or underlined

25

scientifc method def

framework of steps to follow in order to trust our results with careful control

26

steps of scientific method

observe
ask question
form hypothsis
make prediction
do experiment
analyze reaults
report results

27

inductive reasoning

specific observations lead to broad conclusions

most theories created this way

28

deductive reasoning

general principles predict specific outcomes

29

experimental design

control experiment
pay close attention

30

theory

must be widely accepted

contains info from different places

never proven

31

field studies

cant control variables
documentation

32

fermi questions

using assumptions to predict the scientific notation to a bizarre question

33

matter

anything that occupies soacd and has quantative, measurable mass (solid, liquid, gas)

34

mass

amount of material in an object

35

chemical levels

subatomic particles
atoms
molecules
macromolecules

36

atomic theory

all occurances of the same atom or element retain the same property

37

subatomic particles

protons
neutron
electron
photon
lepton
muon
etc

38

neutron

composite- measurable particle unit

in nuclear corr

mass= 1 unit

neutral

39

protons

positive

composite- measurable unit

nuclear core

mass= 1 unit

40

electron

negative

fundamental- functional unit

orbits nuclear core

mass= 1/1840 units

41

atomic symbol

1 or 2 letter code for an element

42

atomic number

number of protons

43

atomic mass

# of protons + # of neutrons

44

atomic charge

all natural occuring elements is 0
#protons = #electrons

45

6 elements i should know & shape

hydrogen
carbon
nitrogen
oxygen
phosphorus
sulfur

46

issotopes

alternative mass forms of an element

different amount of neutrons (extra or missing)

unstable = radioactive

ex: Carbon-14

47

valence electrons

electrons in outermost shell

determine chemical reactivity

needs to be stable

48

molecules

2 or more of same element connected

49

compound

2 or more of different elements connected

50

chemical bonding

interaction between valence electrons to fill outermost shell

51

ionic bonds

one atoms gives/takes in an electron

causes an atomic charge

cation = positive

anion = negative

52

covalent bonds

sharing valence electrons

shells overlap

53

nonpolar covalent bond

between the atoms they have the same amount of electrons shared

same charge on both nuclei

54

polar covalent bonds

unequal electron sharing

attracted to water

105 deg between hydrogens on water

55

hydrogen bonds

weakest bonds

due to polar covalent bonds within 1 compound

result is slighly positive & neg ends of different molecules attract

56

polarity

attraction to water

57

chemical reactions

take exisiting bonds, break then & form new ones

reactants to products

58

water dissociation

reason why we have pH

H2O = H+ + OH-

59

pH

mathematical measurement of free floating hydrogens in a solution

60

pH scale

0-7-14

each is 10 times as strong or weak

61

acids

any substance that donated excess Hydrogen ions to a solution

H+ > OH-

below 7

62

bases

any substance that accepts excess hydrogen ions from a solution

H+ < OH-

above 7

63

human blood pH

7.4

64

acidosis

blood pH 7 to 7.35

65

alkalosis

blood pH 7.45 to 7.8

66

buffers

maintain blood pH

any substance that can both donate & accept excess H+ ions in a solution

bicarbonate (know sequence)

67

4 water properties

cohesion/adhesion

high heat capacity

formation of ice

universal solvent

68

cohesion

ability of water molecules to H-bond with other water molecules

69

adhesion

ability of water molecules to H-bond to other polar molecules/surfaces

70

water transport system

energy efficient

water helps move itself up

carries nutrients & waste throughout plants & bodies

71

surface tension

measure of how difficult it is to break H-bonds in water

72

capillary action

adhesion- water clings to sides of glass tube & forms meniscus

73

high heat capacity of water

heat
temperature
brownian motion

H-bonds between water molecules can absorb a huge amount of energy before changing temp

74

heat

energy associated with movement of molecules

75

temperature

measurement of heat intensity

76

brownian motion

inherent movement of molecules

77

formation of ice

as water is cooled the molecules slow down & push away from each other at the 105 deg angle

the air trapped inside ice crystals cause ice to be less dense & float

78

universal solvent of water

just about everything will eventually dissolve in water

79

solution

a mixture of 2+ substances in an aqueaous form

80

solvent

dissolving agent
water

81

solute

whats being dissolved

82

inorganiz

contain + & - ions

ionic bonding

small # of atoms

nonliving matter

83

organic

contain hydrogen & carbon

covalent bonding

large with many atoms (macromolecules)

living things

84

organic diversity characterisitics

all contain hydrocarbon skeleton

functional groups

85

functional groups

specific set of atoms bonded to backbone that determine the reactivity & function

(polarity, pH)

86

6 functional groups

hydroxyl
carbonyl
carboxyl
amino
sulfhydryl
phosphate

87

isomers

molecules or compounds with same chemical formula but different atom arrangement

88

monomer

single subunit of an organic compound

89

polymer

2 or more monomers bonded together

90

dehydration synthesis

process to bond monomers into polymers by removing water

91

hydrolysis

process to break polymers into monomers by adding water

every monomer you break off you must add one h2o molecule

92

molecules of life

carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids

93

carbohydrate

immediate energy & cellular structure

94

monomer of carbs

monosaccharides

95

monosaccharides

carb monomer
simple sugars
form rings

glucose
fructose
galactose
deoxyribose
ribose

96

carb polymers

disaccharides
polysaccharides

97

disaccharides

carb polymer
maltose
sucrose
lactose

-ose is a carb

98

polysaccharide

carb polymer
amylose
glycogen
peptidoglycan
cellulose (most abundant)
chitin

99

lipids

long term energy
cellular structure

fats
oils
phospholipids
steroids
waxes

100

lipid monomers

glycerol
fatty acid chain

101

glycerol

lipid monomer

see sheet

102

fatty acid chain

lipid monomer

see sheet

103

saturated

contain maximum numbet of H+ on backbone

solid at room temp

104

unsaturated

contains less than maximum number of H+ on backbone

forms double bond shell

105

lipid polymers

triglycerides
phospholipids
steroid hormones
waxes

106

triglycerides

lipid polymer
glycerol & 3 fatty acid chains

107

phospholipid

lipid polymer
phosphate group, glycerol, 2fac

phosphate head is hydrophilic
phosphate tail is hydrophobic

108

steroid hormones

lipid polymer
cholesterol base
4 rings and functional groups

109

waxes

lipid polymer
1 fatty acid chain bonded to an alcohol

110

proteins

structure
contraction
transport
storage
hormone
enzyme
protection

111

protein monomers

amino acid

112

amino acid

protein monomer
3 functional groups
20 dif R groups
smallest backbone

113

protein polymer

polypeptide

114

polypeptide

protein polymer
specific covalent bond formed when carboxyl group loses OH from 1 amino acid and amino group loses H+ from another amino acid

R groups form internal bonds

115

protein folding

shape determines function

116

4 stages of protein folding

Primary- bonds with dehydration synthesis
Secondary- alpha helix or beta sheet, hydrogen bonds
Tertiary- 3D shape, some may function
Quaternary- 2+ 3D shapes together

117

denaturation

change in protein folding due to change in pH or temp

118

nucleic acids

genetic material
protein sequence
cellular energy

119

monomer of nucleic acid

nucelotide

120

nucelotide

phosphate group
nitrogenous base
pentose sugar
DNA or RNA
nucleic acid monomer

121

polymers of nucleic acids

deoxyribonucleotide
ribonucleotide
ATO

122

know shapes of DNA & RNA

see sheet

123

cell theory

all organisms are made one or more cells

cell is basic unit of all living things

all cells come from exisisting cells

124

types of cells

prokaryotic
eukaryotic

125

prokaryotes

unicellular
1mm to 10mm
nucleiod region
single circular
no membrane bound organelles

126

eukaryotes

uni & multi cellular
10mm to 100mm
true nucleus
multiple linear
membrane bound organelles

127

2 types of microscopes

light
electron

128

functions of microscopes

magnification
resolve/resolution

129

magnification

make image appear larger

130

resolve/resolution

improve clarity of image

131

compound light microscope

magnify 1000x

132

scanning electron microscope

magnify 100,000 times
3D image of outside

133

transmission electron microscope

goes through object
10million times
2D image of inside

134

cytosol

liquid solution
everything dissolved

135

cytoplasm

everything from cell membrane to nucleus
things that didnt dissolve as well

136

plasma membrane

semipermeable barrier around cells and organelles

see sheet for pic

137

phospholipid bilayer

forms main barrier

138

cholesterol of pm

membrane stablization

139

proteins of pm

various functions
transport
channel protein

140

carbohydrate chains of pm

self recognition

141

prokaryotic morphology

coccus-spheres
bacillus-rods
spirillum-spiral

142

glycocalyx
pro

outermost layer if present
slime or capsule
protection
attachment

143

cell wall
pro

shape and structure
peptidoglycan
penicilin targets gram positive

144

cell membrane
pro

separate inside from outside

145

flagella
pro

long whiplike
movement

146

frimbriae
pro

short hairl like
attachment

147

sex pili
pro

short hair like
tube used for material

148

cytoplasm/cytosol
pro

organics & inorganics
there when they need it

149

nucleoid region
pro

chromosome for growth & development

150

plasmid
pro

extra chromosomal dna
smaller
resistance

151

ribosome
pro

rna
protein synthesis

152

endosymbiotic theory

concept that explains how certain specific organelles were once living prokaryotic cells

one gets engulfs

153

nucleus
euk

double membrane structure that houses chromatin
pores for transport

154

nucleolus
euk

makes ribosomes

155

ribosomes
euk

protein synthesis

156

cytosol/cytoplasm
euk

organics and inorganics

157

endoplasmic reticulim
euk

smooth & rough

158

rough er
euk

protein synthesis
make polypeptide chains

159

smooth er
euk

lipid synthesis
drug detox

160

golgi apparatus
euk

processes, package, distributr molecukrs from er

proteins & lipids

protein folding

enter cis and exits trans

161

lysosome
euk

small vesicles & contains digestive enzymes
apoptosis

162

peroxisome
euk

small vesicles
contain catalase enzymes
break down lipids

163

vacuoles
euk

large storage structures
central in plant stores water

164

chloroplast
euk

plants only
photosynthesis
3 membranes

165

mitochondria
euk

cellular respiration
2 membranes

166

cytoskeleton

network of protein fibers used for structure

intermmediate filaments
microtubules
microfilaments

167

intermmediate filaments

midsize
help hold cells togeher

168

microtubules

tubulin
largest
long hollow tube

169

microfilaments

actin
move things in cells

170

centrioles
euk

animals only
come in pairs
cell division

171

cilia
euk

short hair likr
movement
animals only

172

flagella
euk

long whip like
movement
animals only

173

cell membrane
euk

separate outside from inside

174

extracellular matrix
euk

animals only
gelatinous & protein to hold cells together internally

175

cell wall
euk

plants only
made of cellulose

176

endomembrane transport

see sheet