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Flashcards in Ch 1 Deck (22):
1

homeostasis

constancy of the internal environment that is the condition for a free and independent life
--> environmental factors (pH), materials (nutrients/water), and internal secretions (hormones)

2

homeostasis: negative feedback

Response opposes or removes the signal
Can restore normal state, but cannot prevent initial signal

3

homeostasis: positive feedback

response increases the initiating signal

4

feedback chain

signal --> sensor --> integrating center --> effector (pos/neg feedback) --> homeostasis

5

Intrinsic regulation

within organ (ex. dilation/constriction of vessels)

6

extrinsic regulation

regulation by nervous/endocrine (hormone) systems (ex. nerve fibers innervate organs, hormone secretion)

7

Blood Pressure Regulation

1. Blood pressure falls (stimulus)
2. Blood pressure receptors respond (sensor)
--> Integrating Center: sensory/motor nerve fibers and medulla oblongata
3. Heart rate increases (effector)
4. Rise in blood pressure (neg feedback response)

8

Blood Glucose Regulation (eating)

1. eating
2. rise in blood glucose
3. pancreatic cells release insulin --> increase cellular uptake of glucose
4. decrease in blood glucose

9

Blood Glucose Regulation (fasting)

1. fasting
2. decrease in blood glucose
3. pancreatic cells decrease release of insulin and increase release of glucagon --> decrease of cellular uptake of glucose and increase of glucose released into blood by liver
4. increase in blood glucose

10

Antagonistic Effectors

increased activity of one effector is accompanied by decreasing activity of antagonistic effector.
• Refined control

11

Primary Tissues

• Muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac; specialized for contraction (in glands/vasculature)
• Nervous: neurons and support cells (conduct impulses/send signals)
• Epithelial Tissue
• Connective tissue: blood, adipose (fat), bone, cartilage. (embedded in a matrix)

12

organ

two or more primary tissues

13

organ system

organs grouped by common function

14

Skeletal Muscle

-voluntary
-striated (can lift more weight)
-multi nucleated, pushed to edge
-arranged parallel (each myofiber can by controlled individually)

15

Cardiac Muscle

-involuntary
-striated
-intercalated discs: contact between adjacent cells, couple cells mechanically and electrically (work as a group)
-multi nucleated, larger than in skeletal

16

Smooth Muscle

-involuntary
-no striations
-random arrangement
-large nuclei
-ex. digestive tract, blood vessels

17

Nervous Tissue

-Neurons: generate and conduct electrical signals
-Cell Body
-Dendrites: receive info, increase SA
-Axons: conduct impulses
-Neuroglial: support cells, allow neurons to do job

18

Epithelial Tissue: Structure

-1+ layers of epithelial cells
-basement membrane (foundation, easier to repair)
-controls what enters/leaves internal environment
-Two types
1. Sheets of cells lining body surfaces 2. Secretory epithelia

19

Structural Classification

Layering
– Simple or stratified
Shapes
– Squamous, cuboidal, columnar
Function
– Exchange, transporting, ciliated, protective, secretory

20

Simple Epithelial Tissue

Squamous
-Flattened, Diffusion, Filtrations
Cuboidal
-Square, Excretion, Secretion, Absorption
Columnar
-Rectangular, Secretion, Absorption

21

Exocrine and Endocrine Glands

Exocrine (outside): secrete something outside to the external environment
--> Sweat Glands, Reproductive

Endocrine (inside): secrete something into internal environment (into circulation)
--> Hypothalamus, Thyroid, Adrenal

22

Connective Tissues: Structure

-lots of extracellular material
1. Ground Substance: Highly variable, Matrix fibers (collagen, elastin, fibronectin) --> extracellular: cells embedded within
2. Cells
-Fixed
•Blasts (build), clasts (breakdown), and cytes (neither)
– Mobile (defense)
3. Connective Tissue, Cartilage, Bone, Blood
**know types