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Flashcards in ch 1 Deck (17):
1

Define Microbiology

The study of microorganisms (microbes), organisms so small that a microscope is needed to see and study them

2

Name types of microbes and know if they are prokaryotic or eukaryotic

Pelomyxa- algae, eukaryotic
mycelia- fungi, eukaryotic
biofilms- eukaryotic

3

Know scientists contributions
Hooke

- built the first compound microscope
-first to see cells with a microscope

4

Leeuwenhoek

-first to see living cells and microbes
-observed bacteria with a single lens

5

Spallanzani

One of the first to disprove spontaneous generation

6

Pasteur disproved spontaneous generation with swan necked flask. How?

-“swan neck” flask allowed oxygen to enter, but kept the boiled contents free of microbes

7

Florence Nightingale

demonstrated the significance of mortality due to disease and founded medical statistics

8

Robert Koch

developed the first scientific method for establishing the microbial cause of a disease

9

Angelina Hesse

suggested using agar. this discovery aided in koch's experiments

10

Germ Theory of Disease

States that microorganisms can invade other organisms and cause disease

11

Jenner

deliberately infected patients with matter drawn from
cowpox lesions. The process of cowpox inoculation was
called vaccination

12

Pasteur

-first to show that infecting with attenuated (weakened) strains of bacteria was able to confer immunity and he applied this principle to other organisms
--Disproved Spontaneous generation, wine and silkworm industry, vaccination, pasteurization

13

Semmelweis

ordered doctors to wash their hands in chlorine, an antiseptic (a chemical that kills microbes).

14

Lister

noted that half of his amputee patients died of sepsis. He began to use antiseptic agents (carbolic acid) to treat wounds and surgical instruments. Father of antiseptic surgery.

15

Alexander Fleming

noted that a culture of Staphylococcus contaminated with mold caused a clearing of the bacteria nearby. Fleming showed that the mold secreted a substance that killed only the bacteria.
(penicillin)

16

Chain and Forey

purified penicillin and it successfully saved the lives of many Allied troops during WWII

17

Koch's postulates:

1) The microbe is found in all cases of the disease, but absent from healthy individuals.
2) The microbe is isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture. (Angelina Hesse)
3) When the microbe is introduced into a healthy, susceptible host (or animal model), the same disease occurs.
4) The same strain of microbe is obtained from the newly diseased host. When cultured, the strain shows the same characteristics as before.