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1

Psychology

discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by physical and mental state and external environment

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psychology vs. pseudoscience

psy: based on scientific research and empirical evidence, confirms or challenges exsisting beliefs and prejudices

pseudoscience: no reliance on empirical evidence, confirms out exisiting beliefs. mozart to babies

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critical thinking

ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence

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what should you do to be a critical thinker (5)

1. ask questions; be willing to ponder
be curious, wonder and inquire, question prior finding and conclusions and ask new questions about human behavior

2. Define your terms
frame questions in cleat and concrete terms- vague or poorly defined questions lead to misleading or incomplete answers

3. Examine the evidence: What evidence supports or refuses this argument?", how reliable is the evidence

4. Analyze assumptions and biases

5. Avoid emotional reasoning
gut feelings should not replace clear thinking, which relies on empirical evidence

6. Do not oversimplify
Look beyond the obvious, resist easy generalizations, reject either or thinking, avoid arguments by anecdote

7. Consider other interpretations:
generate many explanations, choose explanations that account for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions

Tolerate uncertainty:
be comfortable with no definite conclusion when little or no evidence is available

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assumptions

beliefs that are taken for granted

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biases

when assumptions keep us from considering the evidence fairly or cause us to ignore the evidence completely.

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EARLY thinkers

Hippocrates
Joseph Gall- phrenology

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Wilhelm Wundt

trained in philosophy and medicine

established the first official psychological laboratory in 1879
established the first journal devoted to psychology

research focused on consciousness- the awareness of immediate experience

trained introspection used to study consciousness.

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thee early psychological schools

structuralism
functionalism
psychoanalysis

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Structuralism

E.B. Titchener (1867-1927)
analyzes sensation, images and feelings into basic elements
investigates how basic elements are related
aSKS what HAPPENS when hearing feeling or being

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fUNCTIONALISM

William James (1842-1910)
Emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness
Ask HOW and WHY
-inspirted by darwin

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Psychoanalysis

formulated by sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
broad theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy

appear in dreams, jokes- uncouncsious wishes

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G. Stanley Hall

1883: established Americas first research laboratory in psychology at johns hopkins university

founded the american psychological association

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Herman ebbinghaus

1885: conducted classic experiments on memory and forgetting

more names to print out

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the major psychological perspectives

biological
learning
cognitive
sociocultural
psychodynamic

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Biological perspective:12:00

emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings and thoughts

research on hormones, brain chemistry, heredity and evolutionary adaptation

study how biology affects learning, vounerability to emotional disorders, performance, perception of reality.

how body and body interact in health, geners, development ability and personality traits

evolutionanry psychology:
focuses on geneticsally influenced behaviro of the past may reflect us now mentaly processe and traits

we must understand our bodies before we know ourself

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Learning perspectives

concentrates on how the environ. and experiences affect a person's or animal actions

includes behaviroism and social-cognitive learning theories

focus on environmental rewards and punishements that maitian or discourage specific behavirours

they observe and what they can measure directly.

combine theory of behaviorism with a combination of intentions, thoughts, values.
you learn by the enviro and learn by other and what is around them

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Cognitives perspective

emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory language problem solving and otehr areas of behavior

reveals how peoples everyday thoughts and explanations of events affect their actions, feelings and choices

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Sociocultural perspective

concentrates on the social and cultural influences outside the individual that affect theri behavior

includes social psychology and cultural psychology

look at forces: other people, cultural rules, social contecxt that shape human behaviror

social psychology: focus on social rules and roles, how groups affect attitude/behaviro, why authority exsist, and how we are affected by others

cultural psychology: how culture rules/values affect development behaviros and feelings

important because we are social creatures

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Psychodynamic perspective

originated from freuds's theory of psychoanalysis
tries to dig below the surface of a person's behavior to get to its uncounscious roots
focuses on uncounscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts or the movement of instinctual energy

21

two influential movements

humanist psychology
feminist psychology

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Humanist psychjology

1960s
emphasizes the human potential for personal growth
takes an optimistic view of human nature

rejects behaviorism and psychoanalysis

key contributiors were carl rogers, and abraham maslow

capable of free will and able to grow as human being

against psychoanalysis: see it as too pessimistic, overlooks resilience and capacity for joy

against behaviroism: too mechanistic and mindless of human nature- ignores what really matters to most people- their human hops and aspirations


human behaviro is not solely uncounscious conflicts and environ- people have free will determined by

creative and achieve their potential

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Feminist psychology

analyzes the influences of social inequities on gender relation and the behavior of the two sexes

spurred growth of research on topics directly relevant to femals such as menstration and motherhood, gender roles and sexist attitudes.

saw that all studies only included white men in middle class- said it wasnt right to generalize to women and other ethnic groups

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3 professional activities of psychologists

1. Health and mental Health Services
2. Academic TeACHING AND research
3. Non-academic research

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Psychological practitioners

goal is to understand and improve peoples physical and mental health

includes counselling, school and clinical psychologists

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Psychological practinioners

3

1. counselling psychologists: help people deal with problems of everyday life

2. school psychologists: work with parents, teachers, and students to enhance students performance and enhance emotional difficulties

3. Clinical psychologists: diagnose, treat and study mental and emotional problems

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4 types of psychotherapists

1. clinical psychologists: diagnoses, treats, and/or studies mental and emotional problems. Doctorate in clinical psychology

Psychiatrist: Biological approach to diagnosing, treating , and studying mental and emotional probelms, medical degree (MD)

Psychotherapist: Performs psychotherapy, no degree to an advanced professional degree.unregulated term

Psychoanalyst: practices psychoanalysis, training in this approach after advanced degree (MD or PhD)- explore uncouscious motives

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Psychological research

basic psychology research: knowledge for its own sake- helps epplied psychology

applied psychology: knowledge for its practical use psychological issues that have direct practical significance on sociaety- human problems

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Areas of research psychologists

social: interpersonal behaviro- how they interact with others
physiological: genetic factors and body regulation- study body and chemical
experimental: lab studys of emotion, sensation, perception, cognition
cognitive: mental processes- memory, reasoning, problem solving, decision making
educational: how to improve education system, explain learning
developmental: physicaly, mentally and emotionaly study how people change and grow over time
industrial: studybehaviro in the workplace: group decision making, morale, stre,, motivation
psychmetric: design and evaluate tests of personality tests, mental ability, aptitude, personality

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Psychology in the community

sports
, advertising,
opinion polls,
legal issues
enviro
military training