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Flashcards in Ch 1. Chemistry Deck (72):
1

What are Ionic bonds?

electrons that are transfered between 2 atoms, big difference in electronegativities

2

What are polar covalent bonds?

electrons are shared unequally, moderate difference in electronegativities

3

What are nonpolar covalent bonds?

Electrons are shared equally, no difference in electronegativities

4

What are the 5 properties of water?

1. Good solvent, dipoles of H2O break up charged molecules
2. High heat capacity (amount of heat required to raise water 1 deg cel.
3. Ice floats, less dense as solid
4. Strong cohesion (attraction of like substances)
5. Strong adhesion (attraction of unlike substances)

5

Multiple monomers form what?

Polymers

6

Functional group Hydroxyl (OH)

polar and hydrophilic

7

Functional group Carboxyl (COOH)

polar, hydrophilic, weak acid

8

Functional group Amino (NH2)

polar, hydrophilic, weak base

9

Functional group Phosphate (PO3)

polar, hydrophilic, acid

10

Functional group Carbonyl (C=O)

polar and hydrophilic

11

Functional group Methyl (CH3)

nonpolar and hydrophobic

12

What is a Monosaccharide?

single sugar molecule (fructose and glucose)

13

Alpha glucose molecule?

hydrogens on the side are up and OH groups are down

14

Beta glucose molecule

Hydrogen groups and OH groups are inversely related

15

What is a Disaccharide?

two sugar molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage (joined by dehydration) Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose

16

what makes up sucrose

glucose + fructose

17

what makes up lactose

glucose + galactose

18

what makes up maltose

glucose + glucose

19

What is a Polysaccharide?

series of connected monosaccharides, bond via dehydration and break down via hydrolysis

20

what is starch?

polymer of alpha glucose molecules, store energy in plat cells

21

What is glycogen?

polymer of alpha glucose molecules, differs from starch by polymer branching, major energy storage in animal cells

22

What is cellulose?

polymer of beta glucose molecules, structural component of cell walls and wood

23

What is chitin?

Polymer of beta glucose molecules that each have a nitrogen group attached to the ring

24

Fxns of lipids

energy, storage, phospholipid bilayer

25

Triglycerides

3 fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone

26

saturated fat

have no double bonds, bad for health, straight chain and stack densely forming fat build up

27

unsaturated fat

have double bonds, better for health, bent chain, and they don't stack as densely

28

Phospholipid

two fatty acid chains attached to phosphate head on a glycerol backbone, amphipathic

29

steroids

have 3 six carbon rings and 1 five carbon ring as a back bone, cholesterol and hormones

30

Carotenoids

(lipid derivative) fatty acid C rings that produce colors in plants and animals

31

adipocytes

(lipid derivative) specialized white fat cells, contain a large lipid droplet

32

Glycolipids

(lipid derivative) pretty much phospholipids except with carb head,

33

proteins

polymers of amino acids

34

amino acid structure

H, NH2, COOH, R group

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Storage protein

casein in milk, ovalbumin in egg whites, and Zein in corn seeds

36

Transport protein

hemoglobin carries oxygen, cytochromes carry electrons

37

Enzymes

breaks down glycosidic bonds, catalyzes in the forward and reverse directions, efficiency is determined by temp and ph. CANNOT CHANGE SPONTANEITY OF RXN

38

Cofactors

nonprotein molecules that assist enzymes, aka, vitamins

39

Holoenzyme

the union of the cofactor and the enzyme

40

apoenzyme/apoprotein

enzyme not bonded to a cofactor

41

Albumins + globulins

functional and act as carriers or enzymes

42

scleroproteins

fibrous, structural, eg collagen

43

conjugated

protein + nonprotein

44

lipoprotein

bound to lipid

45

mucoprotein

bound to a carb

46

chromoprotein

bound to a pigmented molecule

47

Metalloprotein

complexed around metal ion

48

Nucleoprotein

contain histone or protamine, bound to a nucleic acid

49

primary structure

sequence of amino acids

50

secondary structure

3D shape due to hydrogen bonding between amino acids and carboxylic acid groups of adjacent amino acids

51

tertiary structure

3D structure due to noncovalent interactions between amino acid R groups

52

quaternary structure

3D shape of a protein that is a grouping of two or more peptide chains

53

DNA

polymer of nucleic acid (contains deoxyribose) two anti parallel strands of a double helix

54

Purines

2 rings (adenine and guanine) AT 2 Hydro bonds GC 3 Hydro bonds

55

Pryimidines

Thymine, cytosine, uracil in RNA

56

RNA

polymer of nucleotides that contain Ribose, single stranded

57

Cell doctrine/theory

1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, and organization in all organisms. 3. All cells come from preexisting, living cells. 4. Cells carry hereditary information

58

RNA world hypothesis

self replicating RNA molecules were the precursor to modern life, RNA is less stable then DNA and is more likely to react in a chemical rxn

59

central dogma of genetics

biological information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid; DNA to RNA to Proteins

60

catalysts

lower AE

61

metabolism

consists of catabolism, anabolism, and transfer of energy

62

coenzymes

organic cofactors eg vitamins

63

inorganic cofactors

metal ions

64

Allosteric enzymes

have a binding site for substrate and a binding site for an allosteric activator/inhibitor

65

competitive inhibition

substance that mimics the substrate and binds to he active site of the enzyme and blocking the substrate

66

Noncompetitive inhibition

substance binds elsewhere on the enzyme changing the shape of the active site so the substrate will no longer fit

67

Cooperativity

enzyme becomes more receptive to additional substrate molecules after one substrate molecule attaches to an active site

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raised Km

= binding of substrate is worse

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lowered Km

= binding of substrate is better

70

Globular proteins

somewhat water soluble, many fxns: enzymes, hormones, inter and intracellular storage and transport, osmotic regulation, immune response, etc., mostly dominated by 3ary structure

71

fibrous/structural proteins

not water soluble, made from long polymers, maintain + add strength to cellular and matrix structure, mostly dominated by 2ndary structure

72

membrane proteins

membrane pumps/channels/receptors