Flashcards in Ch 1. Chemistry Deck (72):
What are Ionic bonds?
electrons that are transfered between 2 atoms, big difference in electronegativities
What are polar covalent bonds?
electrons are shared unequally, moderate difference in electronegativities
What are nonpolar covalent bonds?
Electrons are shared equally, no difference in electronegativities
What are the 5 properties of water?
1. Good solvent, dipoles of H2O break up charged molecules
2. High heat capacity (amount of heat required to raise water 1 deg cel.
3. Ice floats, less dense as solid
4. Strong cohesion (attraction of like substances)
5. Strong adhesion (attraction of unlike substances)
Multiple monomers form what?
Functional group Hydroxyl (OH)
polar and hydrophilic
Functional group Carboxyl (COOH)
polar, hydrophilic, weak acid
Functional group Amino (NH2)
polar, hydrophilic, weak base
Functional group Phosphate (PO3)
polar, hydrophilic, acid
Functional group Carbonyl (C=O)
polar and hydrophilic
Functional group Methyl (CH3)
nonpolar and hydrophobic
What is a Monosaccharide?
single sugar molecule (fructose and glucose)
Alpha glucose molecule?
hydrogens on the side are up and OH groups are down
Beta glucose molecule
Hydrogen groups and OH groups are inversely related
What is a Disaccharide?
two sugar molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage (joined by dehydration) Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
what makes up sucrose
glucose + fructose
what makes up lactose
glucose + galactose
what makes up maltose
glucose + glucose
What is a Polysaccharide?
series of connected monosaccharides, bond via dehydration and break down via hydrolysis
what is starch?
polymer of alpha glucose molecules, store energy in plat cells
What is glycogen?
polymer of alpha glucose molecules, differs from starch by polymer branching, major energy storage in animal cells
What is cellulose?
polymer of beta glucose molecules, structural component of cell walls and wood
What is chitin?
Polymer of beta glucose molecules that each have a nitrogen group attached to the ring
Fxns of lipids
energy, storage, phospholipid bilayer
3 fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone
have no double bonds, bad for health, straight chain and stack densely forming fat build up
have double bonds, better for health, bent chain, and they don't stack as densely
two fatty acid chains attached to phosphate head on a glycerol backbone, amphipathic
have 3 six carbon rings and 1 five carbon ring as a back bone, cholesterol and hormones
(lipid derivative) fatty acid C rings that produce colors in plants and animals
(lipid derivative) specialized white fat cells, contain a large lipid droplet
(lipid derivative) pretty much phospholipids except with carb head,
polymers of amino acids
amino acid structure
H, NH2, COOH, R group
casein in milk, ovalbumin in egg whites, and Zein in corn seeds
hemoglobin carries oxygen, cytochromes carry electrons
breaks down glycosidic bonds, catalyzes in the forward and reverse directions, efficiency is determined by temp and ph. CANNOT CHANGE SPONTANEITY OF RXN
nonprotein molecules that assist enzymes, aka, vitamins
the union of the cofactor and the enzyme
enzyme not bonded to a cofactor
Albumins + globulins
functional and act as carriers or enzymes
fibrous, structural, eg collagen
protein + nonprotein
bound to lipid
bound to a carb
bound to a pigmented molecule
complexed around metal ion
contain histone or protamine, bound to a nucleic acid
sequence of amino acids
3D shape due to hydrogen bonding between amino acids and carboxylic acid groups of adjacent amino acids
3D structure due to noncovalent interactions between amino acid R groups
3D shape of a protein that is a grouping of two or more peptide chains
polymer of nucleic acid (contains deoxyribose) two anti parallel strands of a double helix
2 rings (adenine and guanine) AT 2 Hydro bonds GC 3 Hydro bonds
Thymine, cytosine, uracil in RNA
polymer of nucleotides that contain Ribose, single stranded
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, and organization in all organisms. 3. All cells come from preexisting, living cells. 4. Cells carry hereditary information
RNA world hypothesis
self replicating RNA molecules were the precursor to modern life, RNA is less stable then DNA and is more likely to react in a chemical rxn
central dogma of genetics
biological information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid; DNA to RNA to Proteins
consists of catabolism, anabolism, and transfer of energy
organic cofactors eg vitamins
have a binding site for substrate and a binding site for an allosteric activator/inhibitor
substance that mimics the substrate and binds to he active site of the enzyme and blocking the substrate
substance binds elsewhere on the enzyme changing the shape of the active site so the substrate will no longer fit
enzyme becomes more receptive to additional substrate molecules after one substrate molecule attaches to an active site
= binding of substrate is worse
= binding of substrate is better
somewhat water soluble, many fxns: enzymes, hormones, inter and intracellular storage and transport, osmotic regulation, immune response, etc., mostly dominated by 3ary structure
not water soluble, made from long polymers, maintain + add strength to cellular and matrix structure, mostly dominated by 2ndary structure