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Flashcards in Ch. 1 connect Deck (46):
1

An organism's genome consists of..

The DNA found in all of its chromosomes

2

The branch of biology that deals with hereditary and variation is ___.

Genetics

3

A gene can be described as a unit of heredity or as a segment of ___ that produces a functional product.

DNA

4

A gene is a segment of DNA that produces a functional product, which is usually a(n) ___, or as a unit of heredity that affects an organism's ___.

Polypeptide, traits

5

The functional product of most genes is a ___

Polypeptide

6

A polypeptide is a linear sequence of ___ ___.

Amino acids

7

A trait is...

A characteristic of an organism

8

The four categories of large organic molecules that are found in cells are nucleic acid, lipids, carbohydrates, and ___.

Proteins

9

Both DNA and RNA are ___ acids

Nucleic

10

What is a macromolecule?

A molecule composed of repeating units of smaller building blocks

11

DNA is made of ...

Nucleotides

12

Where are the chromosomes located in an eukaryotic cell?

In the nucleus

13

Genes are often described according to the way they affect the characteristics of an organism, which are called ___.

Traits

14

Which of the following are genomic alterations that may induce genetic variation?

- gene mutations
- changes in chromosome structure
- changes in chromosome number

15

List the steps that occur during the natural selection in the correct order.

- a random mutation creates a new allele that is beneficial
- individuals carrying a beneficial allele are more likely to reproduce and pass on the allele
- a beneficial allele becomes more prevalent in future generations

16

Molecular level

A DNA sequence is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into protein

17

Cellular level

The function of a protein in a cell affects the structure and function of the cell

18

Organism level

A flower appears red because it's cells synthesize a red pigment

19

Population level

Beneficial traits evolve because they enhance the reproductive success of some members of a population

20

What are the four nitrogen-containing bases found in the nucleotides that make up DNA?

Cytosine
Thymine
Guanine
Adenine

21

Place the molecules produced when a gene is expressed in the correct sequence beginning with the gene.

DNA -> RNA -> protein

22

In a multicellular organism, cells that are not directly involved in sexual reproduction are called ___ cells.

Somatic

23

The primary function of DNA is to code for the production of ___.

Proteins

24

A cell that is haploid contains..

One set of chromosomes

25

Sperm and egg cells are also called ___

Gametes

26

What are the subunits of DNA?

Nucleotides

27

Mendel proposed that factors, which we now call ___, are passed from parents to offspring via sperm and egg cells.

Genes

28

The process of using a gene sequence to affect characteristics of cells and organisms is called gene ___.

Expression

29

Changes in the genetic makeup of a population from one generation to the next are called ___.

Evolution

30

Morphological trait

The color of a flower
A trait that affects the appearance, form, and structure of an organism

31

Physiological trait

The rate at which a bacterium metabolizes a sugar
A trait that affects the ability of an organism to function

32

Behavioral trait

The mating call of a bird species
A trait that affects the way an organism responds to its environment

33

What are the roles of organic molecules in cells?

- they are building blocks for the synthesis of larger molecules
- they provide energy for cellular processes

34

In a eukaryotic cell, what are the advantages of having the chromosomes organized within a cell nucleus?

- protects the chromosomes from damage
- it provides a single compartment for activities such as gene transcription

35

A change in the nucleotide sequence of a single gene that results in two alleles is called a gene ___.

Mutation

36

What is the name of the process in which a DNA sequence is copied into an RNA sequence?

Transcription

37

What is a model organism?

An organism that is studied so that researchers can study broadly applicable scientific principles

38

What is the primary advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction enhances genetic variation

39

The breeding of two selected individuals and the analysis of their offspring is referred to as...

A genetic cross

40

The information in a(n) ___ molecule is stored in the sequence of its nucleotides.

DNA

41

RNA is an abbreviation for..

Ribonucleic acid

42

The genetic variation among individuals within a population can be explained by differences in the sequence of..

DNA

43

What are some of the functions of enzymes in cells?

- they breakdown molecules and macromolecules into smaller units
- they synthesize molecules and macromolecules

44

The inheritance of genes and the way that genes influence traits is the focus of ___ genetics.

Transmission

45

Differences in inherited traits among individual within a population are refer text to as ___ variation

Genetic

46

The genetic code directs the order of ___ within a polypeptide based on the sequence of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

Amino acids