Flashcards in Ch. 1 connect Deck (46):
An organism's genome consists of..
The DNA found in all of its chromosomes
The branch of biology that deals with hereditary and variation is ___.
A gene can be described as a unit of heredity or as a segment of ___ that produces a functional product.
A gene is a segment of DNA that produces a functional product, which is usually a(n) ___, or as a unit of heredity that affects an organism's ___.
The functional product of most genes is a ___
A polypeptide is a linear sequence of ___ ___.
A trait is...
A characteristic of an organism
The four categories of large organic molecules that are found in cells are nucleic acid, lipids, carbohydrates, and ___.
Both DNA and RNA are ___ acids
What is a macromolecule?
A molecule composed of repeating units of smaller building blocks
DNA is made of ...
Where are the chromosomes located in an eukaryotic cell?
In the nucleus
Genes are often described according to the way they affect the characteristics of an organism, which are called ___.
Which of the following are genomic alterations that may induce genetic variation?
- gene mutations
- changes in chromosome structure
- changes in chromosome number
List the steps that occur during the natural selection in the correct order.
- a random mutation creates a new allele that is beneficial
- individuals carrying a beneficial allele are more likely to reproduce and pass on the allele
- a beneficial allele becomes more prevalent in future generations
A DNA sequence is transcribed into RNA, which is translated into protein
The function of a protein in a cell affects the structure and function of the cell
A flower appears red because it's cells synthesize a red pigment
Beneficial traits evolve because they enhance the reproductive success of some members of a population
What are the four nitrogen-containing bases found in the nucleotides that make up DNA?
Place the molecules produced when a gene is expressed in the correct sequence beginning with the gene.
DNA -> RNA -> protein
In a multicellular organism, cells that are not directly involved in sexual reproduction are called ___ cells.
The primary function of DNA is to code for the production of ___.
A cell that is haploid contains..
One set of chromosomes
Sperm and egg cells are also called ___
What are the subunits of DNA?
Mendel proposed that factors, which we now call ___, are passed from parents to offspring via sperm and egg cells.
The process of using a gene sequence to affect characteristics of cells and organisms is called gene ___.
Changes in the genetic makeup of a population from one generation to the next are called ___.
The color of a flower
A trait that affects the appearance, form, and structure of an organism
The rate at which a bacterium metabolizes a sugar
A trait that affects the ability of an organism to function
The mating call of a bird species
A trait that affects the way an organism responds to its environment
What are the roles of organic molecules in cells?
- they are building blocks for the synthesis of larger molecules
- they provide energy for cellular processes
In a eukaryotic cell, what are the advantages of having the chromosomes organized within a cell nucleus?
- protects the chromosomes from damage
- it provides a single compartment for activities such as gene transcription
A change in the nucleotide sequence of a single gene that results in two alleles is called a gene ___.
What is the name of the process in which a DNA sequence is copied into an RNA sequence?
What is a model organism?
An organism that is studied so that researchers can study broadly applicable scientific principles
What is the primary advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction enhances genetic variation
The breeding of two selected individuals and the analysis of their offspring is referred to as...
A genetic cross
The information in a(n) ___ molecule is stored in the sequence of its nucleotides.
RNA is an abbreviation for..
The genetic variation among individuals within a population can be explained by differences in the sequence of..
What are some of the functions of enzymes in cells?
- they breakdown molecules and macromolecules into smaller units
- they synthesize molecules and macromolecules
The inheritance of genes and the way that genes influence traits is the focus of ___ genetics.
Differences in inherited traits among individual within a population are refer text to as ___ variation