Ch. 1: Health & Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 1: Health & Disease Deck (45):
1

what is disease?

healthy anatomy (structure) & physiology (function) gone wrong

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structural disorder -->

functional disorder

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functional disorder -->

structural disorder

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the study of disease in individuals

pathology

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the study of disease in populations

epidemiology

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# of new cases per year

incidence

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# or % of people with the condition at any moment

prevalence

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all disease is due to ( ) and/or ( )

environmental injuries and/or genetic defects

9

what can indirectly influence disease?

personal habits, social and economic factors

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subclinical state is called what?

latent period

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in infectious diseases, the subclinical state is called

incubation period

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some disease, especially infectious disease, begins with a period of minor, nonspecific aches, dizziness, or other indications called the ( ) that heralds the coming of more intense, specific indications of disease

prodromal period

13

when the disease is quiet, it is in ( ); when it reappears, it is a ( )

remission; recurrence

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a disease may quickly give rise to adverse consequences called

complications

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a disease may be associated with adverse outcomes at a later time, which are called ( )

sequelae

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pathology: the anatomic abnormality produced by the disease

lesion

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pathology:the cause of disease

etiology

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pathology: natural history and development

pathogenesis

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pathology: the manner in which the incorrect function is expresses

pathophysiology

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if the etiology is unkown, the disease is said to be ( )

idiopathic

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if the disease is a byproduct of medical diagnosis or tratment, it is said to be ( )

iatrogenic

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if a disease originates while a patient is hospitalized, it is described as ( )

nosocomial

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the number of people with an illness or complication of an illness and can be stated as either incedence or prevalence

morbidity

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the number of people dying from a particular disease in a particular period of time

mortality

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an individual's liklihood of developing a specific disease

risk factors

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the probability of recovery, death, or another outcome for a disease

prognosis

27

single gene disease

monogenic

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diseases caused by the interaction of multiple genes

polygenic

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monogenic vs polygenic: much more common, much less visible, much more difficult to study

polygenic

30

the cause of the patient's problem

diagnosis

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the study of structural changes caused by disease (form)

anatomic pathology

32

2 types of examinations in anatomic pathology

gross and microscopic

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the study of the functional aspects of disease by laboratory study of tissue, blood, urine, or other bodily fluids

clinical pathology

34

a distinct collection of symptoms, signs, and data

syndrome

35

healthy and sick refer to

whether or not the patient actually has a disease

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normal and abnormal describe

observations and measurements

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what makes up the "normal"

mean + SD

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the ability of a test to be positive in the presence of disease

sensitivity

39

high sensitiviy means

high negative predictive value

40

the ability of a test to be negative in the absence of disease

specificity

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high specificity means

high positive predictive value

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which to test first: specific or sensitive?

sensitive first

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positive predictive value=

# true positive/ total positive

44

negative predictive value=

# true negative/ total negative

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how well a test performs also has a lot to do with

prevalence