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Flashcards in Ch 1 Intro Deck (24):
1

What is BP, what is ideal BP

arterial pressure/ venous pressure
120/80

2

Reticular ______________

CO2 + H20 -> H2C03 -> H+ + HC03-
Reticular ________ is sensitive to pH
build of up H+ one becomes acidic
we become foggy so we stand up and move around

3

Biological hierarchy

Atom, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organs systems, organisms

4

Scientific method

1: observation
2: questions
3: hypothesis
4: predict: "if hypo correct then...."
5: test
6: support or refute the hypo

5

Homeostsis

Internal consistency
all organ systems are meant to maintain homeostasis

6

arterial pH

acidotic < 7.35 - 7.45 > alkolotic

7

Blood glucose

60-100 mg/100 ml

8

How do we maintain pH or glucose

NFL's

9

NFL

1: sensor: sense level of that variable
2: integrating center: (brain or endocrine tissue) processes what sensor says
3: Effector: Do something to maintain H

10

Alagonistic Effectors

work against trend

11

Postural Hypotension NFL

1: lying down
2: stand up too quickly, BP decreases
3. BP receptors stimulated, Barroreceptor in carotids and aorta (sensor)
4. Integrating Center- Medulla Oblongata recieves input from barrorecptors and tells heart to speed up
5. Effector- increase BP, vasoconstrict

12

Blood sugar too high- endocrine control NFL

1: beta cells of pancreatic islets (sensor)
2: integrating center (always the same as the sensor in the endocrine system) beta cells of pancreatic islets sends insuln to the effectors
3: Effector: Liver cells, muscle cells, adipose cells told by insulin to absorb sugar from the blood

13

4 Tissue types and fx

Epithelial tissue: line and cover
muscle tissue: contract
nervous tissue: electrochemical signals
connective tissue: secrete ECM

14

ET

all ET form sheets that line hollow organs or cover outer body
Free surface= Apical surface
Basal surface
basement membrane
areolar CT

15

ET Junctions

1. Tight Junctions: networks of proteins that firmly glue cells together, no fluid can pass. ex: stomach, limits pH from getting to high and destroying CT
2. Anchoring Junctions: allows fluid to go through. ex: heart muscles
3. Gap Junctions: creates passageways for fluid passage, protien CONNEXINS creates channels

16

fx simple squamous ET

single layer of flat cells
fx: allow diffusion

17

fx of simple cuboidal ET

single layer of cuboidal cells
fx: line ducts in kidney and glands, for exceretion, secretion, or absorption

18

fx of simple columnar ET

lining most digestive tract
fx: protections, secretion, absorbtion
can be cilitated

19

fx Stratified squamous

apical layer made of flattened cells
fx: durability, epiderms of skin

20

Classification of CT

ALL CT SECRETE ECM (does not include cells)
1. loose- areolar, adipose, reticular
2. Dense- regular, irregular, elastic
3. Cartilage- Hyaline, firbrocartilage, Elastic
4. Bone- compact, spongy
5. Fluid- Blood

21

Areolar CT

Elastic Fibers, collagen, ground substance
ECM = Fibers- Collagen (stength), Elastin (recoil) + Ground substance- glucosamine, chondroitin
areolar CT has fibroblast - cells that create fibers

22

Dense regular CT

tendons and ligaments, no blood supply- injury slow to heal

23

Hyaline Cartilage

Slick CT between bones, no blood supply- injury slow to heal

24

3 types of Muscle Tissue

Skeletal muscle- connects m to bone
cardiac muscle- branched joined by intercalated discs with jap juctions allowing ions to travel freely between cells and achoring junctions prevent cells from wrenching apart when heart contracts
smooth muscle- linning hollow organs, arrector pili muscle