Ch. 1 - Orientation to Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 1 - Orientation to Pharmacology Deck (25)
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1

Drug ?

Any chemical that can affect living processes

2

Pharmacology ?

The study of drugs and their interactions with living systems

3

Clinical Pharmacology ?

The study of drugs in humans

4

Therapeutics (pharmacotherapeutics) ?

Medical use of drugs

*Full Definition: The use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy.

5

Three MOST IMPORTANT properties of a drug?

1. Effectiveness
2. Safety
3. Selectivity

6

List ALL properties of an ideal drug?

- Effectiveness
- Safety
- Selectivity
- Reversible Action
- Predictability
- Ease of Administration
- Freedom from Drug Interactions
- Chemical Stability
- Possession of a Simple Generic Name

7

Effectiveness ?

An effective drug is one that elicits the responses for which it is given.

* Effectiveness= THE MOST IMPORTANT PROPERTY A DRUG CAN HAVE!

8

Safety ?

A safe drug is defined as one that cannot produce harmful effects - even if administered in very high doses and for a very long time.

9

OpioId analgesics (ex: morphine, meperidine), at high therapeutic doses, can cause potentially fatal _________ __________ ?

Respiratory Depression

10

What kind of drugs , when taken long term in high therapeutic doses, can cause life-threatening gastric ulceration, perforation, and bleeding ?

Aspirin and related drugs

11

Certain anticancer drugs (ex: cyclophosphamide, methotrexate), at usual therapeutic doses, always increase the risk for _________________ ?

Serious infection

12

Selectivity ?

A selective drug is one the elicits only the response for which it was given

13

The antibacterial effects of tetracycline can be greatly reduced by taking the drug with what ?

Iron or calcium supplements

14

Some drugs lose ____________ during storage ?

effectiveness

15

Generic drug names are usually, _________ ?

Complex

16

Which drug name is much simpler ?

Brand name

17

All drugs have the potential to produce what ?

Side effects

18

What is the therapeutic objective of drug therapy ?

Provide maximum benefit with minimal harm !

19

What are important determinants of drug responses ?

- drug dosage
- route
- timing of administration

20

Poor adherence ?

When patients do not take medicine as prescribed

21

Ways to help minimize errors caused by poor adherence ?

Give patients complete instructions about their medication and how to use it

22

Pharmacokinetics ?

The impact of the body on the drugs

*Phramacokinetic processes determine how much of an administered dose gets to its site of action

23

What are the 4 major pharmacokinetic processes ?

1. Drug absorption
2. Drug distribution
3. Drug metabolism
4. Drug excretion

24

Pharmacodynamics ?

The impact of drugs on the body

25

To achieve the therapeutic objective, we must do what ?

We must tailor drug therapy to the individual