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Flashcards in Ch 1 Sec 1&2 Deck (50):
1

Sociology

Scientific study of "social structure"

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Sociology perspective

Never focuses on the individual the view is always at the social, or group, level

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Social structure

The pattern of interactions of people in social relationships

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Sociological imagination

The ability of individuals to see the relationships between events in their personal lives and events in their society

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Perspective

A particular point of view

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Auguste Comte

First used "sociology" in 1824
Father of sociology
French philosopher
Main concern to Improve society

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What question sociologist always ask?

Why do people behave/act the way they do?

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Sociologist study....

Belief system
Values system
Societal and group rules
Ways of organizing families
Educational systems
Religions
Political systems/election trends
Economic systems

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Why study patterns of human behavior?

Bc we see outside events in our lives as intensely personal (ie marriage of William and Kate)

10

Why do sociologists study events and look for the things outside the individual that influence behavior?

Person relationships like marriage they study do figure out "what social influences make it difficult for couples stay together"

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Social facts

Any social activity or situation that can be observed or measured (ie patters in religious affiliation)

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American sociologist who said "you will enrich your life when you come to possess "sociological imagination"

C. Write mills

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Society

An organized group of people in which there are "social experiences"

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Social experience

A relationship; a give and take between 2 or more people; involves everything from a handshake to the election of a president

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Interact

Direct behavior toward one another (ie parents/children)

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Why are cultural expectations and social structures important?

Because they regulate individual and group behavior do that people can act together to achieve common goals

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Why do people behave the way they do?

Environment/social situation most of the time

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Why is all behavior social in some respect?

Because it's influenced by other people

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Physical setting vs social setting

Physical: elevator
Social: alone and someone enters the elevator

20

Behavior will change when?

According to injection of a stranger into a situation

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2 types of sociological analysis

-micro sociology
-macro sociology

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Micro sociology

-why one person is unemployed (lack of skill or experience)
-unhappy married couple

-focuses on immediate, personal matters and relationships
-focuses on personal issues that effect individuals

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Macro sociology

-40% unemployment rate in AA makes (18-27)
-50% divorce rate in the U.S.

-focuses on social problems that go beyond the failings of individuals
-Focuses on broad social issues and structural patterns that effect groups

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Subjective meaning

The meaning/reason behind the action/behavior
*so why it's done*

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Subjective meaning example:
You see two people shaking hands

Why are they shaking hands?
-friendly/formality/aggression

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Verstehen

True understanding
Can only be achieved when we understand our behavior and how our behavior influences others

27

Positivism

Scientific observation for sociology

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Social statics

Study of social stability

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Social dynamics

Study of social change

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Harriet Martineau

Englishwoman
Translated comte's book
Introduced feminism
Compared slaves and women

31

Herbert spencer

English
Compared society to the human body
(Society is composed of parts working together to promote its wellbeing and survival)
Society's have economies, religions, governments, families.
Religious and educational institutions are crucial to society
Social Darwinism: evolutionary social change led to progression. Natural social selection led to survival of strongest society's.
Poor stay poor rich stay rich outside people/government shouldn't help

32

Karl Marx

German scholar
Didn't consider himself a sociologist
Wanted sociologist to change the world not just study it
Identified social classes

33

Bourgeoisie

Owned the means for producing wealth in industrial society. (Ie factories and equipment)

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Capitalist

Had the means for producing wealth. (Bourgeoisie)

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Proletariat

Work for the bourgeoisie
Paid just enough to stay alive

36

Emile Durkheim

Son of French rabbi
Believed society existed bc of wide consensus
Ground breaking research on suicide
Showed that human social behavior must be explained by social factors rather than psychological ones

37

Max Webber

Son of German lawyer and politician
Mom was Calvinist
Suffered mental breakdown
Human beings act on the basis of their own understanding of a situation so sociologist must discover the personal meanings, values, beliefs, attitudes, underlying human social behavior
Believed in empathy

38

Rationalism

The mindset that emphasizes use or knowledge, reason, and planning.

39

Verstehen

Understanding the social behaviors of others by putting yourself mentally in their place

40

Jane Adams

Early woman reformer
Co-founded hull house for immigrants, sick, poor, old
Focused on problems caused by the imbalance of power in social classes
Only sociologist to receive Nobel peace prize
Considered social Worker not sociologist bc she was a woman and didn't teach at a university and bc worked w poor

41

W.e.b. DuBois

Black man who attacked the "negro problem" not only in U.S. But everywhere
Studies social structures or blacks to show they weren't all stupid

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Erving Goffman

Said that the physical setting (elevator) remains the same but the social setting changes by the appearance of strangers

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Social situation

Situation where people interact

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Social structure

Relatively predictable and continuing patterns of these relationships and interactions

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Erving Goffman

The physical setting remains the same but the social setting changes w the appearance of strangers

46

Civil inattention

Civilly ignoring them lol

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Sociology

Th systematic study of social behavior in human and group Patterson

48

Behavior of one person....

Effects the group

49

Why study patterns of human behavior?

Study events and loom for the things outside that influence behavior(what sociological influences make it hard for couples to stay together)

50

What is social setting and how does it change ur behavior?

Who you're around i.e. Act different at school than at home