Ch. 1 The Microbial World and You Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Ch. 1 The Microbial World and You > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1 The Microbial World and You Deck (33):
1

Global burden of infection Disease in common?

Extreme poverty and children get it worse

2

TB

1/3 of the world infected

3

Malaria

200 million

4

Influenza

4,000 deaths in US
40,000 globally

5

Hepatitis

Globally at least 50 million

6

AIDs

Cases in US 900,000 deaths
Globally 32 million (most in Africa)

7

Ascariasis

Round worm infection in lungs
Infected 1.5 billion

8

Types of Microorganisms:

- Bacteria & archae (living): archae doesn't make us sick
- Fungi (yeast & molds) (living): Yeast is unicellular and mold multicellular
- Protozoam (living)
- Algae (living)
- Helminths (living): Animals (flukes & worms)
- Viruses (Not living)
- Prions (Not living): Modifies proteins

9

Cell

Smallest unit of life
Need at least 1 cell to be consider living.

10

Global burden

* 13 million deaths a year
* Ex: TB, AIDs, Influenza, Malaria, Influenza, Hepatitis, Cholera, Ascariasis, Staph, Diarrheal diseases (#2 killer of children)

11

Photosynthesis

A food and oxygen generating process that is critical to life on Earth.

12

Nomenclature

Naming system for microbes
- Genus + Species (Specific Epithet)

13

True or False
Most microbes are not pathogenic, few that can make us sick.

True

14

Aseptic Technique

Technique that prevents contamination by unwanted microorganisms.

15

Spontaneous generation

Ideal or proposal that you sent out to explore through experimentation

16

Biogenesis

The claim that living cells can arise only from pre-existing living cells.

17

Pioneer:
Robert Hooke

* Discovered and named cells --> cell theory (Ex: skin, leaves, tissues)
* Looked through homemade microscope
* Looked at a lot of sliced tissue

18

Pioneer:
Anton Von Leeuwenhoek

* Lens grinder
* 1st to observe microbes and some bacteria
* Made practical microscopes, 300x max
* 1st to observe amimacules, bc the chemist had molecules and they looked like animals, later called microbes (bacteria).

19

Pioneer:
Rudolph Virchow

Proposed Hypothesis called "biogenesis"
- Why smaller forms of life come about spontaneously when larger ones don't (something contaminated with microbial growth)

20

Pioneer:
Louis Pasteur

* Master of Microbiology
* Yeast ferment sugars -> alcohol (grapes to wine)
* Acid producing bacteria -> acids by fermenting sugars (turns wine into vinegar)
* Pasteurization, to kill bacteria (aseptic technique)
* Demonstrated that microorganisms are in the air, everywhere and offered proof of biogenesis
* Discredited spontaneous generation theory

21

Pioneer:
Robert Koch

* Proved Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis
* Koch's postulates- steps to relate a microbe to an infectious disease

22

Pioneer:
Alexander Fleming

* Bacteriologist
* credited for discovering Penicillin
* Bacterial cidal- kill bacteria
* Penicillin- First successful antibiotic to be used to treat gram-positive infection.

23

Criteria for Koch's postulates

1) Some pathogen must be present in the disease
2) Pathogen must be isolated from the disease
3) Pathogen from the pure culture
4) Pathogen must be isolated

24

What are the microbes that cause infectious disease?

* Bacteria
* Fungi
* Protozoans
* Algae
* Helminths
* Viruses and Prions (Considered non-living because their acellular)

25

Koch's Postulates

* Pathogen present in every case of the disease
* Pathogen isolated from diseased host and grown in pure culture
* Pathogen from pure culture must cause disease when inoculated in healthy susceptible laboratory animal
* Pathogen must be isolated from inoculated animal and must be shown to be original organism

26

Pure Culture

Growing by itself without any contamination in the lab on a culture

27

How can microbes be used to benefit us? (6)

* Compost
* Vaccination
* Food and beverages (Fermentation)
* Pesticide via GM foods
* Sewage treatment (waste)
* Pharmaceuticals via GM yeast and bacteria
* Bioremediation
* Probiotics

28

Not so good side to microbes?

• Infectious diseases
• Food & water contamination
• New antibiotic resistant strain
• Crop destruction (mostly molds)
• Form biofilms
- Thick layer of microbes that line and stick to surfaces (Ex. catheters, central lines, ventilators)
- Approx. 70% or more of infections acquired in hospitals come from biofilms…they occur when correct aseptic techniques aren’t used

29

Germ theory of disease

• Microorganisms might cause disease
• First link was yeast play a role in fermentation…which showed the activity of microorganism and physical and chemical changes in organic materials

30

Roles in natural world

* Decompose organic and some inorganic compounds (matter)
* Recycle (O2 released via photosynthesis and Carbon via breakdown of organic compounds)
* Make O2 by photosynthesis (Ex. algae and cyanobacteria….microbes produces most O2)
* Fixation (Ex. N2 (2 nitrogens) fixation & C fixation)
* Normal microbiota

31

Amino acids

Contain Nitrogen
Make protein

32

Nucleotides

Contain Nitrogen
DNA and RNA, which are nucleic acids

33

Biofilms

A microbial community that usually forms as a slimy layer on a surface.