CH 10: BOOK: Rhythm and Meter Flashcards Preview

2018SP JAZZ THEORY/PRACTICE (MUSI-3256-01) > CH 10: BOOK: Rhythm and Meter > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH 10: BOOK: Rhythm and Meter Deck (44):
1

Why has swing been so difficult to define?

Jazz performance practices have changed significantly about every 10 years since early instrumental jazz began.

2

What happened to the actual interpretation of the eighth note?

Has varied

3

How is it possible to trace the evolution of the swing eighth note?

By addressing each stylistic period in chronological order throughout the history of jazz.

4

Which style had a significant impact on the first instrumental jazz bands?

The syncopated but rigid rhythmic style of ragtime

5

Name the style: Syncopations were not so subtle; much emphasis was placed on the quarter and eighth notes, and most of the music was played in two-beat style.

Ragtime

6

Name the style: Beats one and three of the 4/4 measure are stressed providing a "two" feel to the more medium tempos played in 4/4 meter.

Two-beat style

7

In two-beat style, what are the emphasis on beats one and three a carryback toward?

The brass band march and polka styles popular just prior to the beginnings of instrumental jazz.

8

Name the style: Occasionally hemiolas were incorporated, but the music was largely rather stiff compared to the swing of future generations.

Two-beat style

9

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Typical rhythms of early jazz from about 1914 through 1924

10

Name the style: 

Featured a mixture of music by Midwest newcomers such as Bix Beiderbecke and transplanted New Orleans musicians such as Louis Armstrong playing a more mature style of the music that had roots in this southern Delta city.

Chicago-style jazz

11

Name the style: 

Emphasis on beats two and four by these bands who, on occasion, even featured brief walking bass lines as can be heard on Jelly Roll Morton's "Black Bottom Stomp" included in the Smithsonian Classic Collection of Jazz.

Chicago-style jazz

12

Name the style:

These walking bass lines placed quarter notes on each beat of the 4/4 measure, emphasized the growing tendency to democratize the beat, and foreshadowed future jazz styles.

Chicago-style jazz

13

Name the style:

Triplets were increasingly used, particularly by the more sophisticated solists such as Armstrong and those instrumentalists associated with Jelly Roll's Red Hot Peppers recording band.

Chicago-style jass

14

In Chicago-style jazz, the solo break that allowed soloists a measure or two to improvise a cappella without the aid of any accompaniment was popularized as:

double time solo break

15

In Chicago-style jazz, by playing sixteenth note lines at a moderate tempo where the quarter note provided the basic pulse, what was Armstrong able to display?

His unique improvisational ability aided by his exceptional technique.

16

In Chicago-style jazz, provide an excellent example of Armstrong's use of the double time break.

His solo on "Sweethears on Parade," included on the Smithsonian Collection of Classic Jazz

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17

What frequently represents the earliest examples of nonswinging lines beacause it is difficult if not impossible to swing rapidly played sixteenth notes in the same way that eighth notes can be played unevenly to achieve swing?

Double time breaks in Chicago-style jazz

18

Who was the first instrumentalist to realize the nevessary relationship of melody to rhythm in the sense of developing a unified swing ensemble sound?

Armstrong

19

Who was one of the earliest jazz soloists to purposely not swing by noth dragging and rushing the improvised lines, which created a certain tension between the regualrity of the rhythm section?

Armstrong

20

Name the style:

Old styles were gradually discarded as rhythm section players developed a more sophisticated performance technique and the industry made improvements in the desighn and features of rhythm instruments (drum sets, electric guitars, amplifiers).

Swing

21

Name the style:

Emphasis of all beats in the 4/4 measure was achieved through walking bass lines, guitar chording on all beats, and a swinging drum set that approach that introduced the uneven eighth note ride cymbal pattern.

Swing

22

Name the style:

Hi-hat cymbal played strongly on beats two and four, and bass drum on all beats. 

Swing

23

Name the style:

This style possessed a vibrant quality that bounced from beat to beat providing forward momentum. 

Swing

24

By when had Armstrong's idea of uneven accentuation of the eighth note been widely accepted?

1930s

25

Name the style:

Soloists clearly stretched eighth notes occuring on beats while shortening and accenting upbeat eighth notes.

Swing

26

In Swing style, what did this cause?

The concept of swing eighth notes had become almost predictable in the regularity of the upbeat accents. 

In some ways, the swing style was overdone in the hands of some players. Only a few of the more polished soloists in this era were able to achievethe unexpected in a rhythmic sense.

27

What era are these soloists from?

Coleman Hawkins, Roy Eldridge , and Lester Young

28

Name the style:

By the mid-1940s rhythm section players had found ways of playing a pulse and tempo in a more obscure manner.

Bebop

29

Name the style:

The pulse was acccuratley maintained much in the same way that had been passed down from Swing Era players, but drummers became more concious of defining the rhythm of complex new melodies. 

Bebop

30

Name the style:

The regular pulse became somewhat more obscure with less predictibility in terms of the inner accents withing the 4/4 time pulse. 

Bebop

31

Name the style:

Tempos increased and with this increase, it became necessary to once again reevaluate the swing eighth performance practice.

Bebop

32

In the Bobop era, what did players find at faster tempos?

That it was not possible to emphasize swing to the extent that uneven eighth notes had been predictably accented in the Swing Era. 

33

In the Bebop era, what casued drummers like Kenny Clarke and Max Roach to eliminate the bass drum on all four beats of the measure, which streamlined the pulse even more?

Increased tempos

34

In the Bebop era, where were swing eighth notes, as they had existed in a near consistent manner throughout the Swing era, now reserved for?

 The ends of phrases that preceded a rest.

35

Name the style:

Accents were reserved primarily for those points in a melodic line where the direction abruptly changed.

Bebop

36

In the Bebop era, what encouraged smoother eighth notes just as they had encouraged drummers to eliminate the bass drum and pianists to simplify their accompanying styles from the busy early stride and ragtime styles.

Faster bob tempos

37

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Charlie Parker's solo on "All She Rote", accents are added to show where the typical emphasis was placed and particularly at the change in direction. Generally the ends of bob phrases are swung more in the ealier traditional sense of this term than did long eighth note passages in the bob style.

38

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Compared to Charlie Parker's solo "All She Rote" to the rhythmic structure of this solo with the exerpt from Swing Era saxophonist Lester Young's solo on "Jumpin' with Symphony Sid." Each solo swings in it's own right and should not be judged as being more or less superior.

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39

Name the style:

1950s style, which paralleled the ongoing developments of bebop known as hard pop, is known for its reserved, at times chamber-musiclike, character.

Cool jazz

40

Name the style:

Downplayed those performance practicies associated with the hot style -- namely driving, swinging eighth notes.

Cool jazz

41

Name the style:

Drummers often used brushes to match ballads that were frequently interpreted with a more straight eighth note style and played at slower tempos compared to tunes from previous eras. 

Cool jazz

42

Name the style:

The melodic and harmonic influences of the bob style were still present in many of the improvised solos, but the intense swing ever so present in earlier jazz styles had been de-emphasized.

Cool jazz

43

Was creditied with first introducing avant-guard jazz to the world in 1959:

Ornette Coleman

44

Why is avant-guarde not always an accurate label?

Because it is a relative term.