Ch 10 Thinking Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 10 Thinking Deck (16):
0

Cognition

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering , and communicating

1

Concepts

Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people

2

Prototypes

Mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items and a category.

3

Algorithm

Step by step procedure that guarantees solution
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

4

Heuristic

Simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently, usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms

5

Insight

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions

6

Confirmation bias

A tendency to search for info that confirms ones perceptions

7

Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving

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Mental set

Tendency to approach a problem Ina particular way. Often a way that has been successful in the last

9

Functional fixedness

Tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

10

Representativeness heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant info

11

Availability heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events; based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events as common

12

Overconfidence

Tendency to be more confident than correct to overestimate the accuracy of ones beliefs and judgements

13

Framing

The way an issue pose; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements

14

Belief bias

Tendency for ones preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid

15

Belief preserver cue

Clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited