incentive a person selects, commits to, and acts on
Dimensional Characteristics of Goals
Connectedness-complexity, Difficulty, Importance, Level of consciousness, Specificity, and Temporal range
Factors that determine if incentive is chosen as goal
-Value of incentive or potential goal. -Probability of achieving goal. -Amount of effort required to achieve goal.
belief in one’s capability of successfully performing a specific task or achieving a specific goal.
Sight of a textbook reminds person of a future exam with a goal to prepare for the exam.
Stimuli associated with goal-achievement behavior can activate a goal.
A social comparison with other people
determines the level of the goal a person sets for him/herself.
Membership in a group determines
that a person accepts the goals of the group. (ex. Professor sets goal of exam, student accepts that goal)
goal value, rank of a goal in a hierarchy of potential goals.
how hard goal is to achieve, which depends on goal level.
how clear, precise a goal is stated in contrast to a goal being vague.
goals that lack specificity
“Do your best”
how motivating the goal is.
Level determines a goal’s
Specificity determines a goal’s
information that is necessary to achieve a goal
Selecting a goal is based on goal’s utility and goal’s probability of being achieved.
Expected utility theory
refers to usefulness of goal in providing satisfaction or happiness
Utility x subjective probability.
personal belief that a particular event will occur, e.g., that goal can be achieved.
perspective from which to view a goal, e.g., as a gain or as a loss to avoid.
people are reluctant to take risks
-A prospect or goal is appraised with a decision weight that determines the goal’s value or importance; weight is degree of goal’s influence. -Decision weights resemble probabilities but are not identical to them -Psychological value of loss is greater than that of gain. -Small certain gain preferred to large uncertain gain. -High uncertain loss preferred over small certain loss.
the process by which a person becomes set to achieve a goal
implies a willingness and persistent determination to expend time and effort in goal pursuit
procedure whereby a person prevents other goals or behaviors from interfering with the pursuit of her or his current goal
fantasies about a goal intrude into awareness.
mental plans about how to achieve one’s goal before putting plans into action.
-mental image of the relationship among features in the environment. -aids in achieving a goal of wanting to be elsewhere, e.g., from home to library.
-a highly stereotyped sequence of behavioral acts -detailed plan for how to achieve a goal, may also be a goal
-is an abstract series of anticipated behaviors necessary for achieving a goal. -arranges subgoals in a sequence for achievement toward final goal, e.g., career goal.
-information about progress toward goal. -information about whether achievement behavior is effective
decreases discrepancy between the current-state and goal-state
both necessary for goal achievement.
Feedback and goal-achievement
also known as proximal goals, are like rungs in a ladder to reach the top (final or distal goal).
increase motivation because they are temporally closer than a person’s final goal is
goals are self-centered and only concerned with self-survival, i.e., being achieved.
Selfish goal hypothesis
There is a cognitive link between a specific situation and goal achievement behavior.
Hypothesis of implementation intentions
A goal elicits appropriate achievement behavior because goals and achievement behaviors have been linked in the past.
Valence of goal (positive or negative) determines type of achievement behavior that is activated, e.g., approach or withdraw.
satisfaction derived from achieving a goal.
when participant solves anagrams that have solutions like win, compete, and succeed.
A high-performance goal is primed non-consciously
influences subsequent achievement behavior for a different puzzle-solving task; subjects discovered more solutions
a functional reaction to stimulus change
Emotion as a Psychological Construct.
Components of Emotion
subjective affect, facial expressions, physiological arousal, associated behavior, brain processes
private subjective experience that floods consciousness (feelings cannot describe to someone else)
Ex. smiles with happiness, scowls with anger etc
accompanies an emotional experience and includes electrodermal responses, changes in blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, and muscle activity.
action readiness tendencies
amygdala activated in limbic system
emotion channels are associated together
Response coherence postulate
Analyses of the meaning of emotion words resulted in the formation of seven basic categories of emotion.
common meaning of all words in a category
A valence (positive or negative emotions) dimension ranges from unpleasantness to pleasantness
Dimensional Analysis of Emotion Words
Emotions are classified by their ability to aid species survival.
Emotions in a category are qualitatively similar but differ in intensity
Conclusions on Categories of Emotion
primitive subjective experiences that are not fully describable.
Through this process children learn to label their affective feelings.
An emotion word describes the relationship between the person and the object that produces the emotion; Do not occur in a vacuum but are a reaction to an individual or situation.
Emotion Words and Relationships or Causes
Usually the more intense emotions have a shorter duration
Law of Change
psychological changes that precede seizures and involve emotional feelings
Seizures for auras occur in the
limbic system of brain
an emotion stimulus repeatedly elicits the same emotion provided that the person has not habituated to the stimulus
Law of emotional momentum
high passion occurs early in marriage
•the source of emotional feeling
•the impetus for attending to the environment
•the motivation for action
Variables that are associated with affect: heart rate, electrodermal responses, muscle activity, blood pressure, and skin temperature
Methods for Inducing Emotions
Real life manipulation, Directed facial action task, Relived emotions task
A specific emotion occurs when we become aware of our body's unique accompanying pattern of physiological arousal.
Emotion stimulus -> Physiological responses -> Affect
Each unique affective experience has a hypothesized physiological response pattern
Physiological Specificity of Emotion
Conclusion of this research on James-Lange theroy is that discrete emotions cannot be differentiated on the basis of physiological response patterns alone.
Research on Physiological Specificity of Emotion
Counter to predictions from the James-Lange theory, emotional experiences were equally intense before and after a spinal cord injury.
Emotions of Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals
brain maps that correspond to emotional experiences and associated behaviors
Affect depends on the interpretation of one's physiological arousal based on information extracted from the situation.
Cognitive Arousal Theory
Physiological arousal induced from one source influences emotional experience and behavior induced by another source.
•Example – physical exercise increases emotional responses
Excitation Transfer Experiments
Emotion stimuli (gun, snake, nude) produce physiological arousal.
Emotion Stimulus as a Source of Arousal
produce greater physiological arousal than other stimuli (pointed gun or snake)
Physiological arousal indicates an organism's preparedness to make an emergency response, such as fight or flight response.
Action readiness is the preparedness to execute a behavior associated with an emotion.
Cannon’s Theory of Arousal
–Discrete emotions prepare us for specific emergency responses. Anger to fight vs. fear to run.
Emergency Responses and Negative Emotions
Patterns of physiological arousal depend on action readiness, the situation, and cognitive demands required in the situation
Component Model of Somatovisceral Response Organization
Undoing hypothesis: the function of a positive emotion to undo or terminate the effects of a negative emotion. IS a behvaior of ____ emotions
Behaviors for Positive Emotions
–longer duration than emotions
–less intensity than emotions
-less stimulus awareness (awareness of cause)
Differences between Moods and Emotions
Changing features of the environment determine an individual’s emotion.
person appraises the emotion stimulus, pre- and post-aware and responds affectively, physiologically, expressively, and behaviorally
stimulus and its context determine the emotion. Emotions are specified by the conditions that produced them.
Positive stimuli evoke positive emotions; their loss evokes negative emotions.
Negative stimuli evoke negative emotions; their loss evokes relief.
People evoke emotions in others.
Emotions can occur automatically or result from appraisal that is primitive and below the level of awareness
Separation of Emotion and Cognition
Stimuli presented below the level of awareness can elevate mood.
Appraisal Without Awareness
Below awareness, negative elements are appraised a little earlier than positive elements.
Avoidance behavior is associated with negative stimuli and approach behavior with positive stimuli.
Priority of Negative Stimulus Appraisal
–Expectedness: extent situation was expected
–Unpleasantness: extent situation unpleasant-pleasant
–Goal hindrance: extent situations help or hinder goal
–Unfairness: extent situation unjustified, undeserved
–External causation: who was responsible?
–Coping ability: how capable are you of coping?
–Immorality: did person responsible act unethically?
–Self-consistency: extent situation affected self-esteem
–bundle of fiber tracts that form a ring around the brain stem.
–Responsible for emotions
–Regulating fight or flight, feeding, and sexual behavior
–Almond shaped region that plays a crucial role in evaluating emotion stimuli
–Receives visual, auditory, taste, and smell information and uses it to make a quick and rough evaluation about the potential harm or benefit of a stimulus
–Part of limbic system that evaluates the valence of emotion stimuli.
crudely processes fear-relevant stimuli prior to awareness and alerts the cortex, which does more extensive stimulus appraisal.
Neural circuits for subjective emotional experiences are laid down in the limbic system.
Epileptic seizures located in the limbic system – epileptic aura involves feelings of happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, and depression.
Feelings of Affect
originate from the older extrapyramidal system of the brain while voluntary expressions originate from the cortical motor strip
association between facial expressions with emotional feelings (affect)
the activated brain circuit sends information to facial muscles, which generate the expression that is synonymous with the emotion. Affective experience produces the facial expression.
Emotion recognition studies show that expressions of emotions are recognized similarly the world over.
Members identify expressions more accurately for their own cultural group than a different group.
Universality of Facial Expression of Emotion
a facial expression conveys an individual’s emotional feelings to another individual
facial expressions are in service to one’s social motives and need not be linked to emotional feelings.
Behavioral ecology hypothesis
learned social rules specify what voluntary facial expressions are to be exhibited in a specific situation.
Display Rules for Facial Expressions
a state of preparedness for a course of behavior to achieve the aim or goal of an emotion
Each unique emotion has its own aim or goal. An emotion motivates people to achieve the aim or goal of that emotion
Goal of Emotions
During certain social situations, small blood vessels of the face and neck expand to permit increased blood flow into those areas.
Social facial vasodilation
learned social conventions that specify what voluntary facial expressions are to be exhibited in a specific situation.
an emotional feeling influences a person’s future cognitive appraisal. Emotion can bias the appraisal of a situation. (banned/band and bridal/bridle experiment)
each emotion has a unique influence on people’s judgments. Positive mood was found to make a person think more unusually, solve problems better, and show more creativity.
Appraisal tendency hypothesis
the goal of each emotion is to induce an action that deals specifically with the emotional event. The person is in a state of action readiness
Motivator of action
stimuli are evaluated for their positive and negative features, which result in positive and negative affect. The overall combined affect motivates a person’s actions.
Evaluative space model
a positive emotion more quickly terminates a negative emotion than letting the negative emotion fade on its own
Example, amusement from joke lowers group tension
positive emotions enlarge the availability of thought-action links
Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention
Broaden-and-build theory maintains
also known as happiness, is the pleasant feeling a person tries to achieve
This is the level of happiness to which a person consistently returns, resembles a thermostat setting
Set Point of Happiness
increases in happiness are temporary, happiness returns to set point level