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Flashcards in CH 11,13,14 Deck (117):
1

incentive a person selects, commits to, and acts on

Goal

2

Dimensional Characteristics of Goals

Connectedness-complexity, Difficulty, Importance, Level of consciousness, Specificity, and Temporal range

3

Factors that determine if incentive is chosen as goal

-Value of incentive or potential goal. -Probability of achieving goal. -Amount of effort required to achieve goal.

4

belief in one’s capability of successfully performing a specific task or achieving a specific goal.

Self-efficacy

5

Sight of a textbook reminds person of a future exam with a goal to prepare for the exam.

Stimuli associated with goal-achievement behavior can activate a goal.

6

A social comparison with other people

determines the level of the goal a person sets for him/herself.

7

Membership in a group determines

that a person accepts the goals of the group. (ex. Professor sets goal of exam, student accepts that goal)

8

goal value, rank of a goal in a hierarchy of potential goals.

Goal level

9

how hard goal is to achieve, which depends on goal level.

Goal difficulty

10

how clear, precise a goal is stated in contrast to a goal being vague.

Goal specificity

11

goals that lack specificity

“Do your best”

12

how motivating the goal is.

energizing function

13

Level determines a goal’s

energizing function

14

Specificity determines a goal’s

directing function

15

information that is necessary to achieve a goal

directing function

16

Selecting a goal is based on goal’s utility and goal’s probability of being achieved.

Expected utility theory

17

refers to usefulness of goal in providing satisfaction or happiness

Utility

18

Expected utility

Utility x subjective probability.

19

personal belief that a particular event will occur, e.g., that goal can be achieved.

Subjective probability

20

perspective from which to view a goal, e.g., as a gain or as a loss to avoid.

Framing

21

people are reluctant to take risks

Risk averse

22

-A prospect or goal is appraised with a decision weight that determines the goal’s value or importance; weight is degree of goal’s influence. -Decision weights resemble probabilities but are not identical to them -Psychological value of loss is greater than that of gain. -Small certain gain preferred to large uncertain gain. -High uncertain loss preferred over small certain loss.

Prospect theory

23

the process by which a person becomes set to achieve a goal

Goal commitment

24

implies a willingness and persistent determination to expend time and effort in goal pursuit

Commitment

25

procedure whereby a person prevents other goals or behaviors from interfering with the pursuit of her or his current goal

Goal Shielding

26

fantasies about a goal intrude into awareness.

Respondent thoughts

27

mental plans about how to achieve one’s goal before putting plans into action.

Operant thoughts

28

-mental image of the relationship among features in the environment. -aids in achieving a goal of wanting to be elsewhere, e.g., from home to library.

Cognitive map

29

-a highly stereotyped sequence of behavioral acts -detailed plan for how to achieve a goal, may also be a goal

Script

30

-is an abstract series of anticipated behaviors necessary for achieving a goal. -arranges subgoals in a sequence for achievement toward final goal, e.g., career goal.

Plan

31

-information about progress toward goal. -information about whether achievement behavior is effective

Feedback

32

decreases discrepancy between the current-state and goal-state

Achievement behavior

33

both necessary for goal achievement.

Feedback and goal-achievement

34

also known as proximal goals, are like rungs in a ladder to reach the top (final or distal goal).

Subgoals

35

increase motivation because they are temporally closer than a person’s final goal is

subgoals

36

goals are self-centered and only concerned with self-survival, i.e., being achieved.

Selfish goal hypothesis

37

There is a cognitive link between a specific situation and goal achievement behavior.

Hypothesis of implementation intentions

38

A goal elicits appropriate achievement behavior because goals and achievement behaviors have been linked in the past.

Perception-behavior link

39

Valence of goal (positive or negative) determines type of achievement behavior that is activated, e.g., approach or withdraw.

Motivated preparation

40

satisfaction derived from achieving a goal.

Achievement valence

41

when participant solves anagrams that have solutions like win, compete, and succeed.

A high-performance goal is primed non-consciously

42

influences subsequent achievement behavior for a different puzzle-solving task; subjects discovered more solutions

primed goal

43

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44

a functional reaction to stimulus change
 

emotion

45

Emotion as a Psychological Construct.

 

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46

Components of Emotion
 

subjective affect, facial expressions, physiological arousal, associated behavior, brain processes

47

private subjective experience that floods consciousness (feelings cannot describe to someone else)
 

subjective affect

48

Ex. smiles with happiness, scowls with anger etc

facial expressions

49

accompanies an emotional experience and includes electrodermal responses, changes in blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, and muscle activity.

physiological arousal

50

action readiness tendencies

associated behavior

51

amygdala activated in limbic system
 

brain processes

52

emotion channels are associated together
 

Response coherence postulate

53

Analyses of the meaning of emotion words resulted in the formation of seven basic categories of emotion.
 

•Happiness 
•Love
•Surprise
•Sadness
•Fear
•Anger
•Disgust
 

54

common meaning of all words in a category

Emotion prototype

55

A valence (positive or negative emotions) dimension ranges from unpleasantness to pleasantness

Dimensional Analysis of Emotion Words 

56

Emotions are classified by their ability to aid species survival.
 

Evolution Theory

57

Emotions in a category are qualitatively similar but differ in intensity

Conclusions on Categories of Emotion

58

primitive subjective experiences that are not fully describable.

Qualia

59

Through this process children learn to label their affective feelings.

Emotional Education

60

An emotion word describes the relationship between the person and the object that produces the emotion; Do not occur in a vacuum but are a reaction to an individual or situation.

Emotion Words and Relationships or Causes

61

Usually the more intense emotions have a shorter duration
 

Law of Change

62

psychological changes that precede seizures and involve emotional feelings

Epileptic aura

63

Seizures for auras occur in the

limbic system of brain
 

64

an emotion stimulus repeatedly elicits the same emotion provided that the person has not habituated to the stimulus
 

Law of emotional momentum

65

high passion occurs early in marriage
 

Honeymoon effect

66

•the source of emotional feeling
•the impetus for attending to the environment
•the motivation for action
 

Arousal

67

Variables that are associated with affect: heart rate, electrodermal responses, muscle activity, blood pressure, and skin temperature

Physiological Variables

68

Methods for Inducing Emotions

Real life manipulation, Directed facial action task, Relived emotions task

69

A specific emotion occurs when we become aware of our body's unique accompanying pattern of physiological arousal.

  Emotion stimulus -> Physiological responses -> Affect

James-Lange Theory

70

Each unique affective experience has a hypothesized physiological response pattern

Physiological Specificity of Emotion

71

Conclusion of this research on James-Lange theroy is that discrete emotions cannot be differentiated on the basis of physiological response patterns alone.
 

Research on Physiological Specificity of Emotion

72

Counter to predictions from the James-Lange theory, emotional experiences were equally intense before and after a spinal cord injury.
 

Emotions of Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals

73

brain maps that correspond to emotional experiences and associated behaviors

Affect programs

74

Affect depends on the interpretation of one's physiological arousal based on information extracted from the situation.

Cognitive Arousal Theory

75

Physiological arousal induced from one source influences emotional experience and behavior induced by another source.
•Example – physical exercise increases emotional responses
 

Excitation Transfer Experiments

76

Emotion stimuli (gun, snake, nude) produce physiological arousal.

Emotion Stimulus as a Source of Arousal

77

produce greater physiological arousal than other stimuli (pointed gun or snake)

Arousing stimuli

78

Physiological arousal indicates an organism's preparedness to make an emergency response, such as fight or flight response.


Action readiness is the preparedness to execute a behavior associated with an emotion.
 

Cannon’s Theory of Arousal

79

–Discrete emotions prepare us for specific emergency responses. Anger to fight vs. fear to run.
 

Emergency Responses and Negative Emotions

80

Patterns of physiological arousal depend on action readiness, the situation, and cognitive demands required in the situation

Component Model of Somatovisceral Response Organization

81

Undoing hypothesis: the function of a positive emotion to undo or terminate the effects of a negative emotion. IS a behvaior of ____ emotions

Behaviors for Positive Emotions

82

–longer duration than emotions
–less intensity than emotions
-less stimulus awareness (awareness of cause)

Differences between Moods and Emotions

83

Changing features of the environment determine an individual’s emotion.

Situational definition

84

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85

person appraises the emotion stimulus, pre- and post-aware and responds affectively, physiologically, expressively, and behaviorally

Event-Appraisal-Emotion Sequence
 

86

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87

stimulus and its context determine the emotion. Emotions are specified by the conditions that produced them.
 

Situational definition

88

Positive stimuli evoke positive emotions; their loss evokes negative emotions.
Negative stimuli evoke negative emotions; their loss evokes relief.
People evoke emotions in others.
 

Emotion-Eliciting Situations
 

89

Emotions can occur automatically or result from appraisal that is primitive and below the level of awareness

Separation of Emotion and Cognition
 

90

Stimuli presented below the level of awareness can elevate mood.
 

Appraisal Without Awareness
 

91

Below awareness, negative elements are appraised a little earlier than positive elements.
Avoidance behavior is associated with negative stimuli and approach behavior with positive stimuli.
 

Priority of Negative Stimulus Appraisal
 

92

Appraisal Dimensions
 

–Expectedness:  extent situation was expected
–Unpleasantness:  extent situation unpleasant-pleasant
–Goal hindrance:  extent situations help or hinder goal
–Unfairness:  extent situation unjustified, undeserved
–External causation:  who was responsible?
–Coping ability:  how capable are you of coping? 
–Immorality:  did person responsible act unethically?
–Self-consistency:   extent situation affected self-esteem
 

93

–bundle of fiber tracts that form a ring around the brain stem.
–Responsible for emotions
–Regulating fight or flight, feeding, and sexual behavior
 

Limbic System

94

–Almond shaped region that plays a crucial role in evaluating emotion stimuli
–Receives visual, auditory, taste, and smell information and uses it to make a quick and rough evaluation about the potential harm or benefit of a stimulus
–Part of limbic system that evaluates the valence of emotion stimuli.
 

Amygdala
 

95

crudely processes fear-relevant stimuli prior to awareness and alerts the cortex, which does more extensive stimulus appraisal.

Amygdala

96

Neural circuits for subjective emotional experiences are laid down in the limbic system.
Epileptic seizures located in the limbic system – epileptic aura involves feelings of happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, and depression.
 

Feelings of Affect
 

97

originate from the older extrapyramidal system of the brain while voluntary expressions originate from the cortical motor strip

Spontaneous expressions

98

association between facial expressions with emotional feelings (affect)
 

Expression feeling-link

99

the activated brain circuit sends information to facial muscles, which generate the expression that is synonymous with the emotion. Affective experience produces the facial expression.
 

Efference hypothesis

100

Emotion recognition studies show that expressions of emotions are recognized similarly the world over.
Members identify expressions more accurately for their own cultural group than a different group.
 

Universality of Facial Expression of Emotion
 

101

a facial expression conveys an individual’s emotional feelings to another individual

Readout hypothesis

102

facial expressions are in service to one’s social motives and need not be linked to emotional feelings.
 

Behavioral ecology hypothesis

103

learned social rules specify what voluntary facial expressions are to be exhibited in a specific situation.
 

Display Rules for Facial Expressions
 

104

a state of preparedness for a course of behavior to achieve the aim or goal of an emotion
 

Action readiness

105

Each unique emotion has its own aim or goal. An emotion motivates people to achieve the aim or  goal of that emotion
 

Goal of Emotions

106

During certain social situations, small blood vessels of the face and neck expand to permit increased blood flow into those areas.
 

Social facial vasodilation

107

learned social conventions that  specify what voluntary facial expressions are to be exhibited in a specific situation.
 

Display rules

108

an emotional feeling influences a person’s future cognitive appraisal. Emotion can bias the appraisal of a situation. (banned/band and bridal/bridle experiment)
 

Cognitive signaler

109

each emotion has a unique influence on people’s judgments. Positive mood was found to make a person think more unusually, solve problems better, and show more creativity.
 

Appraisal tendency hypothesis

110

the goal of each emotion is to induce an action that deals specifically with the emotional event. The person is in a state of action readiness

Motivator of action

111

stimuli are evaluated for their positive and negative features, which result in positive and negative affect. The overall combined affect motivates a person’s actions.
 

Evaluative space model

112

a positive emotion more quickly terminates a negative emotion than letting the negative emotion fade on its own
Example, amusement from joke lowers group tension
 

Undoing Hypothesis

113

positive emotions enlarge the availability of thought-action links
Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention
 

Broaden-and-build theory maintains

114

also known as happiness, is the pleasant feeling a person tries to achieve

Subjective well-being

115

This is the level of happiness to which a person consistently returns, resembles a thermostat setting
 

Set Point of Happiness

116

increases in happiness are temporary, happiness returns to set point level

Hedonic treadmil

117