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Flashcards in Ch 11 Deck (70):
1

uses both humoral and cellular defenses and is more generalized

innate immune system

2

uses both humoral and cellular defenses and is more specific

adaptive immune system

3

soluble molecules has to do with what response

humoral

4

regulated by T cells has to do with what response

cell-mediated

5

due to antibodies binding

neutralization

6

complement activation, increase phagocytosis

opsonization

7

use of antibodies to tag cells for destruction

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

8

humoral immunity has to do with what three things

neutralization
opsonization
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

9

strength of an individual pairing

affinity

10

number of epitope-binding sites of an immunoglobulin

valence

11

collective affinity of multiple binding sites

avidity

12

interaction of soluble antigen with soluble antibody that results inproduction of Ag-Ab complexes
amount of precipitate formed depends on ratio of antigen to antibody

precipitin reaction

13

what is precipitin reaction affected by

avidity

14

aggregate formation due to antibodies binding cross-linked particles

agglutination

15

entraps microbial invaders, inhibiting mobility
makes more susceptible to destruction

agglutination

16

binding of antibodies to epitopes
inhibits ability of microbes to bind to host surfaces
IgG and IgA

neutralization

17

outcome of FcR signaling depends on whether receptors is associated with what

ITAM/ITIM

18

multiple FcRs need to be cross-linked to

initiate a signal

19

antibodies coating the surface of phagocytosis

opsonization

20

opsonization has to what Fc receptors

macrophages
neutrophils
dendritic cells

21

activated by conformational changes occurring in Fc portion of antibodies upon epitope binding

classical pathway

22

IgM and IgG
facilitate binding of C1, C4, C2, and C3 to C3b
also releases C5a, C4a, and C3a
assembly of MAC
classical pathway

complement activation

23

have surface receptors that bind Fc of IgE that haven't yet bound epitope

mast cells and basophils

24

four points of immediate hypersensitivity

mast cells and basophils have surface receptors that bind Fc of IgE that haven't yet bound epitope.
Cells acquire receptor-bound Igs that function as epitope-recognizing surface receptors.
Surface IgE cross-linked by correct epitopes, mast cell/basophil triggered to degranulate.
Granule release

25

granule release triggers

immediate hypersensitivities

26

cell mediated immunity has two parts

delayed-type hypersensitivity
cell mediated lysis

27

mediated CD8+ cytotoxic T cells
actively destroy pathogen or host cell housing pathogen

cell mediated lysis

28

mediated CD4+ Th1 cells
acts as scouts and calling in reinforcement

delayed-type hypersensitivity

29

directed to microbial stealth and intracellular pathogens

cell mediated immunity

30

activated CD4+ Th1 cells travels where

through tissues

31

bind appropriate pMHC II on APC

Th1 cells

32

interaction with APC reactivates what cells

Th1

33

reactivated Th1 attracts what

additional macrophages and activates them

34

recirculation looking for same or similar structure pMHC II complex
it binds and interacts if a match is found
initiates secretion of phagocyte-derived cytokines
phagocyte can reactivate Th1 cell, proliferate, activate macrophages

delayed-type hypersensitivity

35

Initiates secretion of phagocyte-derived cytokines does what two things and has what three things

activate local vascular endothelium
promote vascular endothelium
IL-1, IL-8 and TNF alpha

36

macrophage activation by CD4+ Th1 cells mediated by CD40: CD40L binding and IFN gamma secretion

delayed-type hypersensitivity

37

delayed type hypersensitivity does what four things upon activation

macrophages increase phagocytic activity
increased production and release of destructive enzymes and reactive oxygen intermediates
attack pathogen, infected cell, and other cells in vicinity
secret chemokines attracting wbc's especially neutrophils

38

what are the two phases of delayed type hypersensitivity

specific phase
nonspecific phase

39

what is the specific phase based on

Th1 cell activity

40

what is the nonspecific phase based on

activity of newly activated macrophages

41

can scan nucleated cells throughout the body to see why cytoplasmically-derived peptides are being presented on MHC I Molecules

cell mediated lysis

42

circulate looking for pMHC I that have been activated
if found, recognizes it as infected
CTls bind directly to pMHC I on infected cells and destroys them

target cell recognition

43

multiple mechanisms of destruction
release perforins and granzymes
CTLs alter their membranes to be resistant to perforins and granzymes
CTLs bear Fas ligand the engages Fas

target cell destruction

44

What are the two types of CTLs

target cell recognition and target cell destruction

45

what does CTLs stand for

cell mediated lysis

46

have cytoplasmic granules containing perforin and granzyme

CTLs

47

creates pores in membrane of targeted cells

release of perforin

48

enter target cell through pores induced by perforin

granzymes

49

due to membrane damage

lytic death

50

engagement of what on CTl with fas on target cell initiates apoptosis of targeted cells

FasL

51

what are the two ways in which CTLs kill cells

directional delivery of cytotoxic proteins that are released from CTLs and enter target cells
interaction of the membrane-bound Fas ligand on CTLs with the Fas receptor on the surface of target cells

52

recognize and kill infected cells and tumor cells by their absence of MHC Class I

NK cells

53

help to regulate innate/adaptive immunity by cytokine secretion

NK cells

54

lack specific Ag receptors

NK cells

55

recognize and destroy pathogen-infected cells and abnormal tumor cells

NK cells

56

proliferate earlier in infection than CTLs

NK cells

57

make up 5-10% of circulating lymphocytes

NK cells

58

recognition of target cells by NK cells is not what

MHC restricted

59

includes both CD4+ and CD4 cell types

NK cells

60

reinfection by the same pathogen leads to a rapid and enhanced response

immunologic memory

61

induced by type two cytokines
multiple isotypes with same specificity gives flexibility to humoral immunity
can occur during each reactivation of memory b cells

isotype switching

62

light chains are not effected by

isotype switching

63

b cells with what progressively dominate the population

affinity receptors

64

b cells whose receptors bind more tightly as a result of what proliferate more rapidly

somatic mutation

65

reactivation of what by binding to epitope triggers new rounds of somatic hypermutation and proliferation

memory b cells

66

True or false: Cells that fail to increase their receptor binding affinity proliferate less rapidly than those that do

true

67

deliberate exposure to infectious organism or toxin to initiate immune response

vaccination

68

body builds defensive reservoir of memory cells that have proliferated and undergone some degree of activation

primary response

69

body acts more quickly and with greater vigor to re-exposure

secondary response

70

opportunity to develop IgG and IgA enables what

body to neutralize microbe