Flashcards in Ch. 11 - Conditional Release Deck (54):
What does conditional release refer to?
An offender's release from prison prior to warrant expiry.
When can conditional releases be revoked?
If the offender is believed to have the potential to commit crimes.
What is conditional release intended to do?
Reduce recidivism by addressing risks and needs.
How does conditional release reduce recidivism?
By facilitating the gradual release and reintegration of offenders into the community while they are still being supervised.
What is the public's opinion on conditional release?
They do not often like it.
Sentences set ____ ____, but do not...
Time limits for punishment, not how they are served.
What parts do corrections and courts play in the sentences of offenders?
Courts determine the sentence, corrections administer them.
Conditional release is thought of as what?
A powerful motivator for good behaviour.
What is remission?
Time off for good behaviour.
Is remission part of Canada's federal system?
Why does conditional release remain such a controversial issue?
Because of misperceptions and misunderstandings with regards to what causes recidivism.
What is the rationale behind conditional release reducing recidivism?
People are most likely to reoffend within their first few months of being out of prison, so this is when we want to monitor them.
After 7 years in the community, offenders reoffending rations are similar to what?
They are similar to the average citizen's offence rate.
Longer prison sentences lead to higher or lower recidivism rates?
Higher rates of recidivism.
What has the greatest impact on policy changes?
Incidents of failure, compared to success rates.
What are the 4 types of conditional release?
Temporary absences, work releases, paroles, and statutory releases.
What ar the two types of temporary absences?
Escorted and unescorted.
What is an escorted temporary absence?
Offenders are released, but are supervised by correctional staff. Normally given upon arrival at an institution.
What is an unescorted temporary absence?
Earned, typically available after having served 1/6 of the sentence, or 6 months - whichever is longer.
When are escorted temporary absences given?
Potentially for compassionate reasons, for medical reasons, to work on community service projects, etc.
When does the case management process for conditional release begin?
Right after sentencing.
What does the case management process entail? (4)
Initial assessment and institutional placement, correctional planning and institutional supervision, preparing cases for release decisions, and finally the parole board decision on release.
What is entailed in the initial assessment and institution placement?
Identification of risks/needs, a decision on what level of institution they are sent to, and development of a correctional plan.
What is entailed in the correctional planning and institutional supervision? (5)
Initiation of the correctional plan, participation in institutional programs, institutional transfers, institutional releases, ongoing monitoring.
What is dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)?
Therapy initially used to treat borderline personality disorder, it's not used as an intensive live-in 4 month program for women.
What does DBT focus on?
Practical issues such as aggressiveness and assertiveness, controlling emotions, and an developing an overall mindfulness for their behaviour.
What is the main focus of correctional planning and institutional supervision?
The move the offender towards better behaviour when they are released.
What is involved in preparing cases for release decisions?
Preparation of institutional progress reports for their behaviour, and preparation of community assessment.
What are the two types of parole?
Day parole and full parole.
What is day parole?
The offender must return to the institution of a halfway house at night.
What is full parole?
Offenders live in the community
When is an offender eligible for full parole?
After 1/3 of the sentence has been served.
What are parole hearings called by inmates? Why?
They are called kangaroo courts because anything goes.
How do those who are justice oriented view parole?
As soft on crime.
What must inmates do to get parole?
Apply for it and have a realistic plan for release.
What issues must inmates address in their plan for release?
The issues of employment, treatment, and residence.
What is the most important consideration in the parole decisions?
The safety of the public.
If there are only minor concerns with an inmate, the parole board will do what?
They won't agree to parole.
What role does participation in correctional programs have in parole board decisions?
It is generally regarded as favourable, but it is not necessary.
What are some problems with correctional programs?
They are not always readily available, and may be exploited by inmates.
What do parole boards use to make their decision? (4)
Pre-sentence reports, institutional reports, criminal record, medical and psychiatric records.
Parole boards can only do what?
What was the faint hope clause?
After an inmate had served 15 years, they could be eligible to apply for a reduction in their parole ineligibility period.
What was the success rate for those who used the faint hope clause?
80% of those who applied got it.
When was the faint hope clause established and abolished?
1976 and 2011.
What is statutory release?
The release of a federal offender after they have served 2/3 of their sentence.
What percentage of releases from federal prison does statutory release account for?
Who is statutory release not given to?
Inmates serving life or indeterminate sentences.
What is statutory release a result of?
The Ouimet committee's report (1969).
How did statutory release evolve?
Remission became mandatory supervision, which then became statutory release.
What concerns were raised in the Ouimet committee report?
About the highest risk inmates being released without any form of supervision.
Do provinces/territories also have statutory release?
They do have a 2/3 release rule, but it isn't the same as statutory release.
What is the difference between the provincial/territorial 2/3 release and a statutory release?
Statutory release is a conditional release, the provincial 2/3 release is absolute.