Ch. 11: Human Development Across the Lifespan Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 11: Human Development Across the Lifespan Deck (40):
1

development

sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death

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prenatal period

from conception to birth (9 months)

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germinal stage

first 2 weeks, cells duplicate, implantation

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placenta

structure that connects mother and fetus

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embryonic stage

2 weeks-end of 2nd month, most vital organs and systems begin to develop, most vulnerable

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fetal stage

2 months-birth

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teratogens

external agents (drugs and viruses) that can harm an embryo or fetus

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motor development

progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities

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cephalocaudal trend

babies gain control of upper body before lower

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proximodistal trend

babies gain control of torso before extremities

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maturation

development that reflects gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint

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fetal alcohol syndrome

microcephaly, heart defects, delayed development, mental retardation

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threshold of viability

23-26 weeks

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developmental norms

typical age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities

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temperament

characteristic mood, activity level and emotional reactivity

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longitudinal design

investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a long period of time, sensitive to developmental changes but participants often drop out

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cross-sectional design

investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time, quicker but cohort effects

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cohort effects

differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods

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stage

developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established

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strange situation procedure

infants are exposed to a series of eight separation and reunion episodes to assess the quality of their atachment

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attachment

close, emotion bonds that develop between infants and their caretakers

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Erikson's stage theory

8 stages, each has a psychosocial crisis (turning point) that entails a struggle between two opposing tendencies, doesn't explain differences in personalities

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cognitive development

transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering and problem solving

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Piaget's stage theory

1. sensorimotor, coordination and symbolic thought develops 0-2
2. preoperational, symbolic thought 2-7
3. concrete operational, mental operations applied to concrete events and hierarchical thought 7-11
4. formal operational, abstract ideas and logic 11-

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object permanence

child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible

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conservation

awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance

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centration

tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other aspects

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Vygotsky's sociocultural theory

development shaped by cultures and social interactions

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Kohlberg's stage theory

moral reasoning
1. preconventional, external authority
2. conventional, maintain social order
3. postconventional, personal moral compass

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pubescence

2 year span preceding puberty when changes leading to maturity take place

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identity diffusion

1, no commitment to an ideology

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identity foreclosure

2, premature commitment, often same as parents

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identity moratorium

3,delaying commitment

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identity achievement

4, arriving at a sense of self

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fluid intelligence

basic reasoning ability, memory capacity, speed of information processing

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crystalized intelligence

ability to apply required knowledge and skills in problem solving

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Secure

Distress, joy

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Ambivalent

Very distressed, mixed

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Avoidant

Little distress, little joy

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Theory of mind

People have different thoughts than you