Ch 11 test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 11 test Deck (30):
1

muscle fatigue

1. depletion of metabolic reserves w/n muscles fibers 2. damage to the sarcolemma and sarcoplastic reticulum 3. decline in pH w/n muscle fibers and muscle as a whole 4, muscle exhaustion and pain

2

fast fibers

contract quickly, w large diameter, glycogen reserves, few mitochondria, strong contractions, fatigue quickly-anaerobic, white, no myoglobin

3

slow fibers

red, contain myoglobin, aerobic, small diameter, fatigue slow

4

intermediate fibers

pink, contain some myoglobin, anaerobic and aerobic

5

cardiac muscle structure

small, 1 nucleus, T-tubles are short and wide w no triads, sarcoplasmic reticulum w no terminal cisternae, dependant on aerobic metabolism, intercalated disc (conduct action potentials)

6

functional characteristics of cardiac muscle

automaticity, responds to nervous sys, contractions last longer than skeletal, no wave summation

7

smooth muscle location

forms around other tissues, regulates blood pressure and airflow

8

smooth muscle structural characteristics

long and slender, spindle shape, one nucleus, nonstriated, thick filaments are scattered throughout cell, thin filaments attached to dense bodies throughout cell, cells are bound together w each other, no tendons or aponeuroses

9

parallel fibers

fibers parallel to long axis of muscle, biceps brachii

10

convergent

broad area converges on attachment site (tendon, aponeurosis, or raphe) pectoralis

11

unipennate

fibers on one side of tendon, extensor digitorum

12

bipennate

fibers on both sides of tendon, rectus femoris

13

multipennate

tendon branches w muscle, deltoid

14

circular

sphincters, orbicularis oris

15

lever

bone-rigid, moving structure

16

fulcrum

joint, a fixed point

17

resistance

load

18

first class lever

resistance, fulcrum, force; head nod

19

second class lever

fulcrum, resistance, force; stand on toes, most powerful

20

third class lever

fulcrum, force, resistance; bicep curl

21

muscle origin

fixed point of attachment

22

muscle insertion

moving point of attachment

23

agonist

prime mover, produces a particular movement

24

antagonist

opposes movement of a particular agonist

25

synergist

a smaller muscle that assists a larger agonist, helps start motion or stabilizes origin of agonist (fixator)

26

naming muscles- location

identifies body regions

27

naming muscles origin and insertion

first part of name indicates origin, second part indicates insertion

28

naming muscles fascicle organization

rectus (straight), transverse, oblique

29

naming muscles relative position

externus (superficialis), internus (profundus), extrinsic, intrinsic

30

naming muscles structural characteristics

number of tendons (bi-2, tri-3), shape (trapezius, deltoid, rhomboid), size